Secretaries of Housing and Urban Development

Secretaries of Housing and Urban Development


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The Department of Housing and Urban Development is the Federal agency responsible for national policy and programs that address America's housing needs, that improve and develop the nation's communities, and enforce fair housing laws. HUD's business is helping to create a decent home and suitable living environment for all Americans, and it has given America's communities a strong national voice at the Cabinet level. HUD plays a major role in supporting homeownership by underwriting homeownership for lower- and moderate-income families through its mortgage insurance programs.The secretary of the department is appointed by the president with the Senate's approval. The undersecretary is the secretary's chief aide. There also are several assistant secretaries.

Term of Service

SecretaryHome StateAdministration

1966 - 1969

Robert C. WeaverWashingtonL.B. Johnson

1969

Robert C. WoodMassashusettsL.B. Johnson

1969 - 1973

George W. RomneyMichiganNixon

1973 - 1974

James T. LynnOhioNixon

1974 - 1975

James T. LynnOhioFord

1975 - 1977

Carla Anderson HillsCaliforniaFord

1977 - 1979

Patricia Roberts HarrisWashington, D.C.Carter

1979 - 1981

Moon LandrieuLouisianaCarter

1981 - 1989

Samuel R. Pierce Jr.New YorkReagan

1989 - 1993

Jack F. KempNew YorkG.H.W. Bush

1993 - 1997

Henry G. CisnerosTexasClinton

1997 - 2001

Andrew CuomoNew YorkClinton

2001 -

Melquiades R. MartinezFloridaG.W. Bush

Shaun Donovan

Shaun Lawrence Sarda Donovan (born January 24, 1966) is an American government official and housing specialist who served as United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development from 2009 to 2014, and Director of the US Office of Management and Budget from 2014 to 2017. [1] Prior to that, he was the Commissioner of the New York City Department of Housing Preservation and Development from 2004 to 2009 under Mayor Michael Bloomberg.

In February 2020, he filed paperwork to run for Mayor of New York City in the 2021 mayoral election.


General Records of the Department of Housing and Urban

Established: By the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act (79 Stat. 667), September 9, 1965.

Predecessor Agencies:

  • Federal Housing Administration (FHA) (1934-39)
  • FHA, Federal Loan Agency (1939-42)
  • Central Housing Committee (CHC), (1935-42)
  • Defense Housing Coordinator, Advisory Commission, Council of National Defense (1940-41)
  • Division of Defense Housing Coordination, Office for Emergency
  • Management, Executive Office of the President (1941-42)

In the National Housing Agency (NHA, 1942-47):

  • FHA (1942-47)
  • Federal Home Loan Bank Administration (1942-47)
  • Federal Public Housing Authority (1942-47)

In the Housing and Home Finance Agency (HHFA, 1947-65):

  • FHA (1947-65)
  • Public Housing Administration (1947-65)
  • Home Loan Bank Board (1947-55)
  • Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA, 1950-65)
  • Community Facilities Administration (CFA, 1954-65)
  • Urban Renewal Administration (URA, 1954-65)
  • Federal Flood Indemnity Administration (1956-57)

Functions: Coordinates all federal housing programs.

Finding Aids: Katherine H. Davidson, comp., General Records of the Housing and Home Finance Agency, PI 164 (1965), which includes records of HUD predecessor agencies supplement in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.

Related Records: Record copies of publications of the Department of Housing and Urban Development and its predecessors in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.
Records of the Federal Housing Administration, RG 31.
Records of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, RG 195.
Records of the Public Housing Administration, RG 196.
Records of the Federal National Mortgage Association, RG 294.

207.2 RECORDS OF THE DIVISION OF RESEARCH AND STATISTICS, FEDERAL HOUSING ADMINISTRATION
1931-45

History: Established under provisions of the National Housing Act (48 Stat. 1252), June 27, 1934, as the Division of Economics and Statistics and renamed in the spring of 1940. Responsible for preparing statistical surveys and legal and economic reports. Transferred with FHA to National Housing Agency, by EO 9070, February 24, 1942, and assigned to NHA administrator, July 1, 1942.

Textual Records: Reports, maps, and issuances, 1937-45, containing data about cities compiled from sources dated from 1850 to 1945. Current housing situation reports, 1938-42. Housing monographs, 1939-42. Reports on construction contracts, 1931-41.

207.3 RECORDS OF THE CENTRAL HOUSING COMMITTEE
1933-43

History: Organized as an interagency committee to coordinate federal housing activities and to study operating problems, policies, and objectives, September 27, 1935. Consisted of representatives of the Farm Credit Administration, the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, the FHA, the National Emergency Council, the Reconstruction Finance Corporation Mortgage Company, the Resettlement Administration, and the Treasury Department. Abolished by EO 9070, February 24, 1942, which created the National Housing Agency. SEE 207.5.

Textual Records: Correspondence and other records relating to committee organization, 1933-35. Minutes of CHC meetings, 1935- 42. General records of the executive secretary, 1935-42. Records relating to the termination of the CHC, 1942-43. Records of the Steering Committee, 1936 the Ways and Means Committee, 1938-40 and the Special Committees of Five and Three, 1939-40. Records of several specialized and technical committees, first known as subcommittees, including the Appraisal and Mortgage Analysis Committee, Economics and Statistics Committee, Law and Legislation Committee, Public Relations Committee, and Research, Design, and Construction Committee, 1935-42.

207.4 RECORDS OF THE DEFENSE HOUSING COORDINATOR AND THE DIVISION OF DEFENSE HOUSING COORDINATION
1940-42

History: Position of Defense Housing Coordinator created under the Advisory Commission to the Council of National Defense by Presidential order, July 18, 1940. Coordinator of Defense Housing transferred to Office for Emergency Management in the Executive Office of the President by EO 8632, January 11, 1941, as head of the newly established Division of Defense Housing Coordination. Functions of the division and the coordinator transferred to the National Housing Agency by EO 9070, February 24, 1942. SEE 207.5.

Textual Records: Policy and administrative records and general records ("Subject File"), 1940-42. Correspondence relating to defense housing, 1941-42.

207.5 RECORDS OF THE NATIONAL HOUSING AGENCY
1934-47

History: Established as an emergency agency by EO 9070, February 24, 1942, under the First War Powers Act of 1941 (55 Stat. 838), December 18, 1941, to consolidate federal housing agencies and functions. Composed of three constituent units: FHA, Federal Home Loan Bank Administration, and Federal Public Housing Authority. (For administrative histories of NHA constituent units, SEE RG 31, RG 195, and RG 196.) Functions formerly vested in the Division of Defense Housing Coordination administered directly by NHA. NHA superseded by HHFA, effective December 31, 1947, under Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1947. SEE 207.6.

Textual Records: General files, 1942-47. Correspondence, memorandums, and directives of Assistant Administrator Coleman Woodbury, 1942-45. Subject file of the war housing program and a 5 percent sample of local program operating files, 1942-46. Records of the Homes Use Division, 1942-46. Case files relating to Farm Security Administration and Resettlement Administration housing projects, 1934-42 and subject file of the Federal Public Housing Authority relating to disposition of case files, 1945-46.

207.6 RECORDS OF THE HOUSING AND HOME FINANCE AGENCY
1933-65

History: Established as a permanent agency by Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1947, effective July 24, 1947, replacing the NHA. Initially consisted of FHA, Public Housing Administration, and Home Loan Bank Board, the last of which separated from HHFA, 1955. (For administrative histories of these constituent units, SEE RG 31, RG 196, and RG 195.) Acquired the Federal National Mortgage Association from Federal Loan Agency as a constituent unit, 1950. (For administrative history of FNMA, SEE RG 294.) HHFA Division of Community Facilities and Operations and HHFA Division of Slum Clearance and Urban Redevelopment redesignated Community Facilities Administration and Urban Renewal Administration, and elevated to constituent unit status, 1954. (For administrative histories of CFA and URA, SEE 207.6.5 and 207.7.6.) Federal Flood Indemnity Administration operated as HHFA constituent unit, 1956-57 (SEE 207.6.6). HHFA superseded by the Department of Housing and Urban Development, 1965. SEE 207.1.

207.6.1 General records

Textual Records: Subject correspondence files of HHFA administrators, 1947-65. Central files, 1947-65 (including some for HUD), and a related alphabetical name index, 1959-65. Issuances, 1947-65. Correspondence and other records relating to the placing of export controls on construction materials needed for veterans' housing, 1945-48. Correspondence relating to HHFA's race relations program, 1946-58 and reports on programs in each Congressional district, 1960-64. Records relating to the prefabricated housing program, 1950-52.

207.6.2 Records of the Division of Housing Research and
predecessor units

Textual Records: General records, 1942-54. Records relating to the allocation of scarce building materials, 1942-45. Sample case files relating to the construction of prefabricated houses and the production of new building materials, 1946-47. Reports, memorandums, and correspondence, chiefly with the National Bureau of Standards, about contract research projects, 1945-54. Research and technical publications, 1943-54.

207.6.3 Records of the Office of Program Policy

Textual Records: Correspondence, 1953-60.

207.6.4 Records of the Division of Plans and Programs

Textual Records: General subject file, 1950-53. Correspondence relating to mobile, demountable housing, 1950-51. Subject file relating to the controlled materials plan, 1950-52. "Locality files" relating to housing in critical defense areas, 1950-54.

207.6.5 Records of the Community Facilities Administration and
its predecessors

History: Division of Defense Public Works (DDPW) established in the Federal Works Agency (FWA) by administrative order, July 16, 1941, to supervise national defense public works projects. Division of War Public Service (DWPS), established in FWA August 3, 1942, under provisions of the National Defense Housing (Lanham) Act (54 Stat. 1125), October 14, 1940, to administer public services required by the war effort. DDPW and DWPS consolidated, effective January 1, 1945, as Bureau of Community Facilities (BCF), FWA, by Administrator's order, December 12, 1944. BCF transferred to General Services Administration (GSA) with other constituent units of FWA when FWA abolished by the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act (63 Stat. 377), June 30, 1949, and became the Community Facilities Service (CFS). Transferred to HHFA from GSA by Reorganization Plan No. 17 of 1950, effective May 24, 1950, and designated the Division of Community Facilities and Operations (DCFO). Redesignated Community Facilities Administration and made constituent unit of HHFA by Administrator's Organizational Order No. 1, December 23, 1954. Abolished by Department of Housing and Urban Development Act (79 Stat. 667), September 9, 1965, and functions assigned to HUD.

Textual Records: Subject files, 1943-48, 1950-64, and related alphabetical name indexes, 1950-58, 1963-64. FWA memorandums and other issuances inherited by CFA, 1940-50. CFA program files, 1963. Lanham Act war public works file, 1943-52. Lanham Act defense public works program records, 1941-50. DCFO general subject file and project files relating to the disaster relief program, 1947-53. DCFO Hawaiian tidal wave damage relief project files, 1946.

207.6.6 Records of the Federal Flood Indemnity Administration

History: Established as a constituent unit of HHFA by Administrator's Organizational Order No. 1 [2], effective September 28, 1956, under provisions of the Federal Flood Insurance Act (70 Stat. 1078), August 7, 1956. Abolished for lack of appropriations by Administrator's Organizational Order No. 3, effective July 1, 1957.

Textual Records: Survey materials pertaining to a proposed program, 1956-57.

207.6.7 Records of the Division of Field Coordination

Textual Records: Regional reports, 1952-55.

207.6.8 Records of the Investigation Branch of the Compliance
Division

Textual Records: Correspondence, reports, case files, and other records relating to special investigations into operations of the agency and its programs, 1954.

207.6.9 Records of the National Voluntary Mortgage Credit
Extension Committee

History: Established under the chairmanship of the HHFA Administrator, by the Housing Act (68 Stat. 638), August 2, 1954. Terminated October 1, 1965, as provided in establishing legislation. Facilitated private funding of housing in depressed areas.

Textual Records: Records accumulated by the national executive secretary and by the executive secretaries of the regional subcommittees, 1954-65.

207.6.10 Miscellaneous records

Textual Records: Correspondence files of the President's Advisory Committee on Housing Policies and Programs and its subcommittees, 1953-54. Correspondence and reference files pertaining to the Women's Congress on Housing, 1956 and to the White House Conference on Aging, 1959-61. Records relating to Public Agency (Public Facility) Loans, 1933-55, a continuation of a similar program begun under the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.

207.7 RECORDS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT
1942-87 (bulk 1961-83)

207.7.1 General records

Textual Records: Subject correspondence files of Robert C. Weaver, Administrator of HHFA and HUD Secretary, 1961-68 Under Secretary Robert C. Wood, 1967-68 Preston Brown, Special Assistant to the Under Secretary, 1967-68 and Lewis E. Williams, Assistant Administrator (Administration) under NHA and HHFA and Deputy Assistant Secretary for Administration under HUD, 1942-66. Subject files of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and its predecessors, 1952-69. Subject correspondence, reading file, and staff correspondence of Under Secretary Richard C. Van Dusen, 1969-72. Records of Executive Assistant to the Secretary Albert A. Applegate, 1970-72 and of Deputy Assistant Secretary for Housing Management G. Richard Dunnells, 1971-73.

207.7.2 Records of the Office of Public Affairs

Motion Pictures (28 reels): Press conferences and speeches of Secretary George Romney, 1969-71 (27 reels). Black employees' demonstration at HUD, 1970 (1 reel). Unfinished motion picture Instant Rehabilitation documenting a pre-fabricated housing unit project in New York, NY, ca. 1966-69 (14 reels). Motion picture Open Space and outtakes documenting urban recreation facilities around the nation, 1967-69 (28 reels). Fair housing public service announcements in English and Spanish, ca. 1970 (24 reels). General motion pictures (258 reels) and video recordings (8 videotape cassettes)produced or acquired by HUD or its predecessor HHFA relating to housing and urban development issues, programs, activities, and policies, 1948-80 . SEE ALSO 207.10.

Sound Recordings (501 items): Speeches, media appearances, and press conferences of the secretary and assistant secretaries staff meetings Presidential addresses relating to HUD programs media broadcasts on the agency's programs demonstrations hearings and workshops and spotmasters for radio announcements, 1966-80. SEE ALSO 207.12.

207.7.3 Records of the Office of International Affairs

Textual Records: Subject correspondence files and bilateral and cultural exchange records, 1966-77. Country files, 1968 . Mixed files, 1965-73 , 1942-67.

207.7.4 Records of the Division of Housing Research, Office of
the Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research

Machine-Readable Records (1 data set): Housing evaluation form survey conducted as part of the experimental housing allowance program, 1972-76, with supporting documentation. SEE ALSO 207.13.

207.7.5 Records of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for
Community Planning and Development

Textual Records: Urban information and technical assistance program files of the Program Regulation Division, 1967-73, consisting of case histories of states (AZ, NJ, OH, OR only) awarded grants under the Demonstration and Metropolitan Development Act of 1966. Comprehensive Planning Assistance Program records of the Planning Assistance Division, 1972-81. Model Cities Program reports of the Data Systems and Statistics Division, 1966-73. Flood insurance study files of Marion Clawson, Director, Studies of Natural Disasters, an ad hoc study group appointed by the director, Office of Program Policy, pursuant to the Hurricane Disaster Relief Act of 1965, to prepare a report on the possible establishment of a comprehensive, integrated flood and disaster relief program, 1966.

Microfilm Publications: M1384.

Machine-Readable Records (1 data set): Records of the Program Management Division, consisting of HUD rehabilitation loans and grants master file, containing information on loans and grants made to owners and tenants in urban rehabilitation projects, 1968-79, with supporting documentation. SEE ALSO 207.13.

207.7.6 Records of the Urban Renewal Demonstration Division,
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology

History: Division of Slum Clearance and Urban Redevelopment established in HHFA to administer provisions of the Housing Act of 1949. Redesignated Urban Renewal Administration and made constituent unit of HHFA by Administrator's Organizational Order No. 1, December 23, 1954. Transferred with HHFA to HUD, 1965. Functions assigned successively to Demonstration Programs Administration and Office of Urban Studies and Clearinghouse Services in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Demonstrations and Intergovernmental Relations, 1965-68 and to independent Office of Urban Technology and Research, 1968, which became Office of Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology (OASRT), 1969. Urban Renewal Demonstration Program established in OASRT, 1970, and designated Urban Renewal Demonstration Division, 1971. Responsibility for urban renewal transferred to Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Development, 1972, and decentralized.

Textual Records: Subject files, 1949-65, and a related name index, 1958-65, in the form of a reading file. Subject files of the Finance Branch, 1948-68. Urban renewal demonstration grant case files, 1954-72 and unsuccessful grant proposals, 1954-71.

Photographs (12,548 images): Areas throughout the United States before redevelopment, 1951-67 (UR). SEE ALSO 207.14.

207.7.7 Records relating to "Operation Breakthrough"

History: "Operation Breakthrough," 1969-78, was a HUD effort, under the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research, to stimulate the private housing industry by promoting volume industrialized housing production, particularly through modular construction.

Textual Records: Press releases, 1969-72. Company and subject file, 1972-73. Press clippings, 1971-73. Site publicity records, 1969-73. Publications relating to "Operation Breakthrough," 1970- 76.

Architectural Plans (5,000 items): Primarily ozalid copies, some annotated, of site plans, construction specifications, floor plans, elevations, cross-sections, and details of demonstration projects scattered throughout the United States, 1969-72. SEE ALSO 207.9.

Motion Pictures (5 reels): "Operation Breakthrough" housing program, 1971-72. SEE ALSO 207.10.

Photographs and Other Graphic Media (391 images): Site models, types of homes and apartments, and tests by the National Bureau of Standards, 1970-72 (A, B, D). SEE ALSO 207.14.

207.7.8 Records of the New Community Development Corporation (NCDC)

History: Established by the Urban Growth and New Community Development Act (84 Stat. 1804), December 31, 1970. Abolished by the Housing and Urban-Rural Recovery Act (97 Stat. 1238), November 30, 1983.

Textual Records: Briefing books, 1971-82. Records relating to NCDC activities in support of the development of Soul City, NC, 1974-83.

Maps (966 items): Property survey and utility maps of Soul City, NC Woodlands, TX and other planned communities, 1970-83. SEE ALSO 207.9.

Architectural Plans (500 items): Design drawings of Soul City, NC Woodlands, TX and other planned communities, 1970-83. SEE ALSO 207.9.

207.7.9 Records of the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration
(FDAA)

History: Responsibility for administering the Federal Disaster Act of 1950 (64 Stat. 1109), September 30, 1950, assigned to the Office of Defense Mobilization (ODM) in the Executive Office of the President (EOP) by EO 10427, January 16, 1953. ODM consolidated with Federal Civil Defense Administration to form Office of Defense and Civilian Mobilization, EOP, by Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1958, effective July 1, 1958. Redesignated Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization (OCDM), EOP, by an act of August 26, 1958 (72 Stat. 861). OCDM redesignated Office of Emergency Planning, EOP, by an act of September 22, 1961 (75 Stat. 630). Redesignated Office of Emergency Preparedness, EOP, by an act of October 21, 1968 (82 Stat. 1194). Abolished by Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1973, effective July 1, 1973, with disaster relief functions to Federal Disaster Assistance Administration, HUD. FDAA abolished with functions to Federal Emergency Management Agency by EO 12148, July 20, 1979, retroactive to July 15, 1979.

Textual Records: Correspondence, memorandums, and reports relating to Hurricane Agnes relief programs, 1972-74.

207.7.10 Records of the Federal Interagency Task Force on Food
and Shelter for the Homeless

Textual Records: Administrative files and general correspondence, 1983-87. Records relating to task force involvement with the Community for Creative Non-Violence (Washington, DC), the University of the District of Columbia Shelter, 1983-86. Records relating to task force involvement with the DC Coalition for the Homeless, 1985-86.

207.7.11 Records of investigatory and advisory commissions
supported by HUD

Textual Records: Records of the Commission on Mortgage Interest Rates, including subject correspondence, research papers, reports of meetings, transcripts of hearings, and a final report, 1968- 69. Records of the National Commission on Urban Problems, including subject correspondence, reports of meetings, transcripts of hearings, studies, and a final report, 1965-68, including also records of the Douglas Commission, 1967-68.

Sound Recordings (27 items): Hearings of the National Commission on Urban Problems, 1965-68. SEE ALSO 207.12.

207.8 RECORDS OF REGIONAL OFFICES
1953-67

207.8.1 Records of the Fort Worth Regional Office

Textual Records (in Fort Worth): Public works planning program project control cards for CO, LA, NM, OK, and TX, 1953-65. Accelerated public works program project control cards, 1962-67, including cards pertaining to defense community facilities projects, 1953-55.

207.8.2 Records of the San Francisco Regional Office

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Prefabricated Housing Loan Program records (files 356-378 only), 1953-54.

207.9 TEXTUAL RECORDS (GENERAL)
1934-70

Correspondence, 1966-78 . Agency issuances, ca. 1934-70 . Publications describing inner city renewal programs, 1965-75 . Records relating to the Advance Planning Program, 1948-54. Housing market analyses, 1968-78 . Economic analysis surveys of families moving from low rent housing in various cities, 1938-49 . Alaskan housing case files, 1949-67 . New Community Development Program files, 1967-72 . College housing correspondence, 1952-67 . Reference correspondence (Name Index) files, 1966-78 . Records of the Veterans Educational Facilities Program, 1946-49 . Microfilm copy of public works project case files, 1949-50 (1774 rolls) . Metropolitan Development records, 1965-68 . Metropolitan and Community Planning subject files, 1967-69. Community Planning and Management program records, 1969-71 . Policy analysis and program evaluation files, 1965-73 . Records relating to Accelerated Public Works Programs, 1945-65.

207.10 CARTOGRAPHIC RECORDS (GENERAL)

SEE Maps UNDER 207.7.8.
SEE Architectural Plans UNDER 207.7.7 and 207.7.8.

207.11 MOTION PICTURES (GENERAL)
1963-69

Creation of HUD and appointment by President Johnson of Robert C. Weaver as the first HUD Secretary, 1963-66 (3 reels). Ceremonies relating to the establishment and early activities of the department, 1966-67 (5 reels). Problems of housing and of urban development and planning, 1966-69 (124 reels). Fair housing rights, energy conservation, urban housing construction materials and techniques, environmental and ecological issues, addresses by HUD secretaries, and other subjects, 1950-79 (30 reels) . Building a Solar Home (5 reels and 1 videotape), ca. 1970.

SEE UNDER 207.7.2 and 207.7.7.

207.12 VIDEO RECORDINGS (GENERAL)
1978-80

Spot announcements, farewell speech by HUD Secretary Patricia Harris, and HUD activities in Greensboro, NC, 1978-80.

207.13 SOUND RECORDINGS (GENERAL)

SEE UNDER 207.7.2 and 207.7.11.

207.14 MACHINE-READABLE RECORDS (GENERAL)

SEE UNDER 207.7.4 and 207.7.5.

207.15 STILL PICTURES (GENERAL)
1962-80
36,798 images

Photographs (9,200 images): Construction progress on Indian low- rent housing projects in AZ, MT, NM, and SD, 1962-68 (I, 300 images). Low-rent housing in the United States, 1963-69 (G, 7,700 images). Building techniques and housing production activities at prototype sites, 1969-73 (HSP, 1,200 images).

Color Photographs (1,723 images): Prototype housing developments, 1970-73 (PHS, 1,500 images). Projects in MA, NH, OH, TX, and CT, 1972-73 (C, 223 images).

Photographs and Other Graphic Media (24,100 images): Projects submitted to the HUD biennial design competition, 1969-80 (UED).

Photographs and Drawings (44 images): Low-income and urban housing developments in nine U.S. cities "Habitat 67" exhibit at Expo '67, Montreal, Canada, 1969 (LIH).

Poster (1 image): HUD Urban Environmental Design National Awards, 1980 (P).

Filmstrips (1730 images)and associated audio cassettes (16 recordings) describing Department programs and policies, ca. 1968-74 (FS).

SEE Photographs UNDER 207.7.6.
SEE Photographs and Other Graphic Media UNDER 207.7.7.

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.


Contents

No. Portrait Name State of residence Took office Left office President(s)
1 Robert C. Weaver New York January 18, 1966 December 18, 1968 Lyndon B. Johnson
2 Robert C. Wood Massachusetts January 7, 1969 January 20, 1969
3 George W. Romney Michigan January 22, 1969 January 20, 1973 Richard Nixon
4 James T. Lynn Ohio February 2, 1973 February 5, 1975
Gerald Ford
5 Carla A. Hills California March 10, 1975 January 20, 1977
6 Patricia R. Harris District of Columbia January 23, 1977 September 10, 1979 Jimmy Carter
7 Maurice E. Landrieu Louisiana September 24, 1979 January 20, 1981
8 Samuel R. Pierce New York January 23, 1981 January 20, 1989 Ronald Reagan
J. Michael Dorsey
Acting
New York January 20, 1989 February 13, 1989 George H. W. Bush
9 Jack F. Kemp New York February 13, 1989 January 20, 1993
10 Henry G. Cisneros Texas January 22, 1993 January 20, 1997 Bill Clinton
11 Andrew M. Cuomo New York January 29, 1997 January 20, 2001
William C. Apgar
Acting
January 20, 2001 January 24, 2001 George W. Bush
12 Mel Martinez Florida January 24, 2001 August 13, 2004
13 Alphonso Jackson Texas August 13, 2004 September 1, 2004
September 1, 2004 April 18, 2008
Roy A. Bernardi
Acting
New York April 18, 2008 June 4, 2008
14 Steve Preston Illinois June 4, 2008 January 20, 2009
Brian D. Montgomery
Acting
Texas January 20, 2009 January 26, 2009 Barack Obama
15 Shaun Donovan New York January 26, 2009 July 28, 2014
16 Julián Castro Texas July 28, 2014 January 20, 2017
Craig Clemmensen
Acting
January 20, 2017 March 2, 2017 Donald Trump
17 Ben Carson Florida March 2, 2017 January 20, 2021
Matt Ammon
Acting
January 20, 2021 March 10, 2021 Joe Biden
18 Marcia Fudge Ohio March 10, 2021 Incumbent

As of June 2021, there are ten living former secretaries of housing and urban development (with all secretaries that have served since 1993 still living), the oldest being Maurice E. Landrieu (served 1979–1981, born 1930). The most recent secretary of housing and urban development to die was James T. Lynn (served 1973–1975, born 1927), who died on December 6, 2010. The most recently serving secretary to die was Jack Kemp (served 1989–1993, born 1935) on May 2, 2009.


The HUD Secretary Position

The President often chooses a nominee for this position who has a background in law, business, or public administration. Other vital experience may include positions of leadership, as well as extensive familiarity with management.

The Secretary's annual salary has ranged over the years from $199,000 to more than $210,000 per year. The salary is paid by the General Fund of the Treasury. Most of the Secretaries remain in office throughout the President’s tenure. However, they are free to resign at any time.

The President also has the discretion to remove the Secretary from office and nominate a new one. Secretaries of Housing and Urban Development most often resign at the end of the President’s term in office.


Why Did President Nixon Show George Romney the Door as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development?

Mitt Romney coyly hints -- premised on his winning the presidential election in November -- that he might very well eliminate the Department of Housing and Urban Development. His father, George Romney, held this cabinet-rank portfolio from 1969 to 1972. It is self evident that Mitt Romney's rationale for excising HUD entails his ardor to cut costs -- and jobs -- in the federal bureaucracy.

But largely forgotten is the fact that President Nixon unceremoniously pushed Secretary Romney out of his cabinet. (For the record, Romney was not fired. Understanding that he had lost the confidence of the president, he knew enough to resign. So did John A. Volpe, a another former governor of Massachusetts, who served Nixon as Secretary of Transportation).

Why did this happen? Secretary Romney, as Roger Biles details in his The Fate of the Cities (University Press of Kansas, 2011), vigorously promoted an accelerated federal role in the racial integration of suburban America tied to the Fair Housing Act of 1968. For his bold effort -- officially known as the Open Communities initiative -- Secretary Romney found himself consigned to the margins of power by President Nixon and his staff. His initiative had threatened to upend the president's political calculus to secure Republican electoral dominance in the nation's predominantly white suburbs. (Nixon soured on Volpe because he successfully promoted the Urban Mass Transit Act of 1970, with sizeable federal subsidies totaling $10 billion.) In one instance John Ehrlichman wrote to President Nixon characterizing "a serious Romney problem." Much of this entailed Nixon’s great obsession with getting re-elected in 1972, but that is another story unto itself.

Secretary Romney wasn't alone in his ardor for affordable housing, either. One hundred Republicans in the House of Representatives, including Representative George H.W. Bush of Texas, voted for of the Fair Housing Act of 1968. Bush's support for this legislation ended in his own political vilification when he unsuccessfully campaigned for election to the United States Senate in 1970.

I've wondered why -- in the course of the long campaign leading up to the general election in November of 2012 -- we've barely heard a word at all about the ouster of Secretary Romney. Surely the passionately devoted son harbors some sense about how and why President Nixon showed his father the door.

It seems altogether probable that George Romney’s experiences in the Nixon cabinet some forty years ago helped to shape the political education of Mitt Romney. But it also seems entirely unlikely that Mitt Romney would ever reflect upon that during this campaign any more than he would speak in detail about the health-care mandate he championed as governor of Massachusetts. Talking about either federally-subsidized integrated housing or government-mandated health insurance -- would derail Romney's carefully cultivated public image as a conservative.

If asked about his father's experience as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, one might conjure up the image of Mitt Romney dismissively invoking the aphorism made famous by Henry Ford: "History is bunk."


The Bottom Line

As with all government departments, HUD has supporters who think that its resources are being well spent and its programs are effective, and it has detractors who think its resources are misallocated and its programs are unnecessary at best and harmful at worst. There are real-life examples of people who have been helped and people who have been harmed by its rules and programs. Ultimately, it is difficult to assign blame or praise to just one entity when so many factors affect housing in the United States.


Status of the Dept. of Housing and Urban Development Disparate Impact Rule

This memo was written to address the status of disparate impact discrimination analysis under the Fair Housing Act (“FHA”), following the Trump Administration’s 2020 rule and the Biden Administration’s response. The 2020 HUD rule, which would have gutted disparate impact as a means of establishing unlawful discrimination under the FHA, was enjoined in October 2020 and was not permitted to go into effect. As of March 2021, HUD continues to operate pursuant to the status quo, which is governed by the Obama Administration’s 2013 rule on disparate impact analysis under the FHA.

THE 2013 DISPARATE IMPACT RULE

In 2013, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (“HUD”) issued a disparate impact rule, “Prohibiting Discriminatory Effects.”[1] This discriminatory effects standard equipped HUD and fair housing advocates to expose and combat the effects of racism, poverty, disability discrimination and accessibility, and adverse environmental conditions disproportionately affecting the health of marginalized groups.[2]

The 2013 rule codified the department’s existing practice of recognizing disparate impact claims under Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 known as the Fair Housing Act. The 2013 rule adopted a burden-shifting framework typical of disparate impact analysis in other contexts such as employment discrimination.

The burdens of proof “shift” as follows: 1) the plaintiff(s) may challenge a facially neutral practice that “actually” or “predictably results” in a “disparate impact” on protected classes of individuals, or that “creates, increases, reinforces, or perpetuates segregated housing patterns” 2) the defendant may show a business justification for the challenged practice, and must prove that the practice is “necessary to achieve one or more substantial, legitimate, nondiscriminatory interests” and finally, 3) the plaintiff can overcome the business justification by showing that the defendant could achieve its interests via some less discriminatory alternative.

Disparate impact analysis by its very definition does not require plaintiffs to show that the defendant(s) had any intent to discriminate—just that a facially neutral policy would or did have a discriminatory effect on marginalized groups.

Examples of seemingly neutral policies with discriminatory effects include requiring tenants to complete a criminal background check, prohibiting construction of multifamily housing, and artificial intelligence programs used to determine creditworthiness for lending purposes.[3]

The 2013 rule further required the defendant to prove that the challenged practice is “necessary” to achieve a legitimate, nondiscriminatory interest, protecting plaintiffs who often lack access to relevant information that lies solely with the defendant. Before this rule was promulgated, many court decisions under the FHA simply required a defendant to show some legitimate business justification, an extremely low bar.[4]

The rule survived a Supreme Court challenge in the 2015 case Texas Dept. of Housing and Community Affairs v. Inclusive Communities Project.[5] Inclusive Communities Project (“ICP”) is a nonprofit organization that works to advance racial and economic integration and equity in housing for low-income communities in Texas.

In its lawsuit, ICP claimed that the Texas Department of Housing and Community Affairs disproportionately granted Low Income Housing Tax Credits to minority neighborhoods and denied them in majority white neighborhoods. ICP asserted that this led to a concentration of low-income housing in communities of color, thus perpetuating racial segregation in violation of the FHA.[6]

ICP won under a burden-shifting framework, and survived on appeal to the Fifth Circuit. The Supreme Court affirmed, holding that disparate impact liability is consistent with the FHA’s purpose in preventing discriminatory effects in housing practices because it gives plaintiffs a tool to counteract unconscious prejudices and more covert discrimination.

The Court further held that to establish a prima facie case for disparate impact liability under the FHA, the plaintiff must meet a robust causality requirement, showing something more than racial disparity alone.[7]

THE 2020 RULE

Under then-Secretary Ben Carson’s leadership in September 2020, however, HUD finalized a new rule to make it harder for plaintiffs to prove disparate impact claims, with the stated purpose of conforming to the Supreme Court’s ruling in Inclusive Communities.[8]

The new rule required plaintiffs to meet a substantially higher threshold when bringing disparate impact claims by revising the burden-shifting framework. Whereas the 2013 rule required the defendant to bring forth a legitimate business justification for a challenged policy with a discriminatory effect, the new rule required plaintiffs to affirmatively show the policy serves no valid purpose.

Further, the new rule armed defendants with broader defenses to discriminatory policies, including the ability to show a valid objective in turning a profit—effectively, if a discriminatory policy was enacted because it is profitable, the policy’s profitability alone would be sufficient to protect it from disparate impact liability.[9]

Under this rule, if a plaintiff wished to challenge a profitable but discriminatory policy, they would be required to proffer a less discriminatory alternative that would produce substantially similar profits.[10] HUD also removed “perpetuation of segregation” as one of the definitions of discriminatory effect, ostensibly for “streamlining” purposes only.[11] The new rule was set to take effect on October 26, 2020.

Shortly after the publication of the new rule, three separate groups of housing advocates filed federal lawsuits in California, Connecticut, and Massachusetts, respectively, to enjoin HUD from enacting the new rule.[12]

On October 25, 2020, U.S. District Court Judge Mark Mastroianni of the District of Massachusetts issued a stay and nationwide preliminary injunction against HUD and then-Secretary Carson regarding the new rule, finding that the rule’s “significant alterations, which run the risk of effectively neutering disparate impact liability under the Fair Housing Act, appear inadequately justified.”[13] HUD filed an untimely appeal that was later withdrawn, and the injunction remains in effect.[14]

THE CURRENT LANDSCAPE

On January 26, 2021, President Biden issued a memorandum directing the HUD Secretary to examine the effects of the 2020 rule and implement changes as necessary to ensure fair housing.[15]

On March 10, 2021, Representative Marcia L. Fudge (D-Ohio) was confirmed by the Senate as the new HUD Secretary, and is the first Black woman to lead the department in over four decades.[16] She is expected to officially reinstate the 2013 disparate impact rule, among other moves intended to strengthen fair housing protections.[17]

The National Fair Housing Alliance, a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit focused on equal housing opportunity that filed the California lawsuit covered by the injunction, continues to work closely with HUD and Secretary Fudge on reinstating the disparate impact rule and advancing other fair housing issues.[18]

May 2021 update: In response to the President’s directive, HUD submitted draft rules in April 2021, including a proposed rule to reinstate the 2013 standard for disparate impact discrimination claims. The rule is currently in a 90 day review period and is expected to be made public by July 2021.

[3] Tracy Jan, New federal rule will make it harder to challenge discrimination in the housing industry, lawsuits allege, The Wash. Post, Oct. 22, 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2020/10/22/housing-discrimination-lawsuit-hud/ (last visited Mar 25, 2021).

[4] Michael J. Agoglia, et al., “HUD Issues Aggressive New Fair Housing Rule,” Morrison & Foerster LLP (2013), https://media2.mofo.com/documents/130212-hud-issues-aggressive-new-fair-housing-rule.pdf (last visited Mar 25, 2021).

[5] Texas Dep’t of Hous. & Cmty. Affs. v. Inclusive Communities Project, Inc., 576 U.S. 519, 135 S. Ct. 2507, 192 L. Ed. 2d 514 (2015).

[12] On October 22, 2020, the National Fair Housing Alliance, NAACP Legal Defense Fund, Fair Housing Advocates of Northern California, and BLDS, LLC filed a federal lawsuit in California seeking an injunction against the new HUD rule. Connecticut civil rights groups, Open Communities Alliance and South Coast Fair Housing of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, filed a similar lawsuit the same day. And in Massachusetts, civil rights groups Massachusetts Fair Housing Center and Housing Works, Inc. also filed a similar lawsuit, from which the nationwide injunctive order was issued.

[14] This information was shared with me by phone conversation with Morgan Williams, General Counsel for the National Fair Housing Alliance.


List of Secretaries of Housing and Urban Development

No. Portrait Name State of Residence Took Office Left Office President(s)
1 Robert C. Weaver New York January 18, 1966 December 18, 1968 Lyndon B. Johnson
2 Robert C. Wood Massachusetts January 7, 1969 January 20, 1969
3 George W. Romney Michigan January 22, 1969 January 20, 1973 Richard Nixon
4 James T. Lynn Ohio February 2, 1973 February 5, 1975
Gerald Ford
5 Carla A. Hills California March 10, 1975 January 20, 1977
6 Patricia R. Harris District of Columbia January 23, 1977 September 10, 1979 Jimmy Carter
7 Maurice E. Landrieu Louisiana September 24, 1979 January 20, 1981
8 Samuel R. Pierce New York January 23, 1981 January 20, 1989 Ronald Reagan
J. Michael Dorsey
Acting
January 20, 1989 February 13, 1989 George H. W. Bush
9 Jack F. Kemp New York February 13, 1989 January 20, 1993
10 Henry G. Cisneros Texas January 22, 1993 January 20, 1997 Bill Clinton
11 Andrew M. Cuomo New York January 29, 1997 January 20, 2001
William C. Apgar
Acting
January 20, 2001 January 24, 2001 George W. Bush
12 Mel Martinez Florida January 24, 2001 December 12, 2003
13 Alphonso Jackson Texas December 12, 2003 April 1, 2004
April 1, 2004 April 18, 2008
Roy A. Bernardi
Acting
New York April 18, 2008 June 4, 2008
14 Steve Preston Illinois June 4, 2008 January 20, 2009
Brian D. Montgomery
Acting
January 20, 2009 January 26, 2009 Barack Obama
15 Shaun Donovan New York January 26, 2009 July 28, 2014
16 Julian Castro Texas July 28, 2014 January 20, 2017
75px Craig Clemmensen
Acting
January 20, 2017 March 2, 2017 Donald Trump
17 75px Ben Carson Florida March 2, 2017 Incumbent

What does the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development do?

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is a member of the President's Cabinet and reports directly to the President. The Secretary manages multiple programs that have thousands of employees. One of the primary duties of the HUD Secretary is to advise the President on issues regarding housing.

Beside above, what did the Department of Housing and Urban Development do during the 1960s? The Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 created HUD as a cabinet-level agency and initiated a leased housing program to make privately owned housing available to low-income families.

Accordingly, what are the goals of the Department of Housing and Urban Development?

HUD was created as a cabinet-level agency in 1965. Its mission is to create strong, sustainable, inclusive communities and quality, affordable homes for all. To provide a framework for the delivery of HUD's mission and vision, the Strategic Plan outlines a set of strategic goals, objectives, and performance measures.

What does transportation secretary do?

Serves as principal adviser to the president in all matters relating to federal transportation programs. The Office of the Secretary oversees the formulation of national transportation policy and promotes intermodal transportation.


Watch the video: HUD secretarys plan to help those facing evictions and foreclosures


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