March 29, 2013 Day 69 of the Fifth Year - History

March 29, 2013 Day 69 of the Fifth Year - History


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10:30AM THE PRESIDENT departs Joint Base Andrews

12:50PM THE PRESIDENT arrives Miami, Florida
Miami International Airport

1:20PM THE PRESIDENT tours a tunnel project at PortMiami
PortMiami, Miami, Florida

2:00PM THE PRESIDENT delivers remarks on the economy
PortMiami, Miami, Florida

3:00PM THE PRESIDENT departs Miami, Florida
Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida

5:15PM THE PRESIDENT arrives Joint Base Andrews


29 Largest Armies In The World

The military are there to protect their country from harm.

The world in which we live in is not perfect. Countries need armies, and they also tend to go to war with each other. Countries that face threats from within and outside their borders have to deal with different security risks. This kind of reality forces countries to raise powerful armies to protect and defend their interests. The numbers below are from the International Institute for Strategic Studies in their 2019 report.


List of Leap Years

The standard calendar followed around the world is the Gregorian calendar. It has 12 months with 30 or 31 days out of which February is the only month that has 28 or 29 days. If there are 29 days in a year, it is called a 'leap year'. This Buzzle article provides a list of leap years from the year 1800 to 2400.

The standard calendar followed around the world is the Gregorian calendar. It has 12 months with 30 or 31 days out of which February is the only month that has 28 or 29 days. If there are 29 days in a year, it is called a ‘leap year’. This Buzzle article provides a list of leap years from the year 1800 to 2400.

It is believed that people born on February 29 have unusual talents and personalities that reflect their special status. On the other hand, the Chinese believe that leap year babies are unlucky and difficult to raise.

The reformed Julian calendar, now known as Gregorian calendar, is followed all over the world today. It has two types of years, the common year and the leap year. The common years are years that have 365 days, but a leap year has an extra or intercalary day that adds one day to the year thus having a total of 366 days.

This extra day is added to the year to synchronize the calendar year with the solar year. This means that it tries to match the length of time the earth requires to complete its orbit around the sun, that is, 365¼ days. The solar year is about 11 minutes less than 365¼ days in length. Therefore, to compensate the discrepancy, the extra day or leap year is omitted three times every four hundred years.

  • Martis, named after Mars, the Roman god of war
  • Aprilis, derived from the Latin word aperite, meaning ‘to open’, just as the flowers open during this month.
  • Maius, named after the mother of Mercury, Maia.
  • Junius, named after the queen of gods, Juno

The Latin numbers were used to derive the names from the fifth months onwards like:

  • Quintilis
  • Sextilis
  • September
  • October
  • November
  • December

As this calendar proved to be inaccurate compared to the solar year, King Numa added two extra months to the year and brought the number of days to 355 with Janaruis, named after Janus, the two-faced god and Febuarius, derived from Febura, a Roman feast. This calendar still had many problems and could not be rectified even by adding extra months. This confusion was cleared by another Roman emperor, Julius Caesar. He introduced the Julian calendar in 46 BCE. He tasked the best astronomers and geographers to correct the calendar. They calculated and concluded that the year should have 365¼ days. This could be made possible by following a cycle of three years with 365 days and followed by one leap year of 366 days. He added 30 and 31 days to consecutive months. Thus, March has 31 days, April 30 days, May 31 days, and so on. January, the month near to the winter solstice, was made the first month of the year. He added only 29 days in the month of February in a common year, and the intercalary day was inserted in February once every four years. Julius Caesar was honored by the Roman Senate by renaming Quinitis as ‘Julius’ (now July).

After the death of Julius Caesar, the priest made a mistake and started to add leap years every three years. It was corrected by Emperor Augustus in 8 BCE. Augustus too was honored by the Romans by renaming Sextilis as ‘Augustus’. Emperor Augustus, was not happy with his month having fewer days than the month of Caesar. He therefore, added an extra day in his month making it 31 days. Thus, one day was subtracted from February, making it 28 days long in a common year, and 29 days long during the leap years. This Julian calendar was followed without any change for many centuries.

But, this calendar still had flaws. The average year was of 365.25 days long and the solar year length is 365.242216 days. This made the Julian calendar 11 minutes and 14 seconds longer. This little extra added up over the centuries, and led to the vernal equinox to fall on March 11, rather than March 21, during the 16 th century. Thus, Pope Gregory XII moved the date by 11 days and made an exception to the rules of leap years. Now, according to the new rule, a century is a leap century only if it is divisible by 400. Thus, the average length of a Gregorian year is now 365.2425 days. The following table gives a list of leap years from the 1800s till the 2400s.

1801 – 2100
1804 1904 2004
1808 1908 2008
1812 1912 2012
1816 1916 2016
1820 1920 2020
1824 1924 2024
1828 1928 2028
1832 1932 2032
1836 1936 2036
1840 1940 2040
1844 1944 2044
1848 1948 2048
1852 1952 2052
1856 1956 2056
1860 1960 2060
1864 1964 2064
1868 1968 2068
1872 1972 2072
1876 1976 2076
1880 1980 2080
1884 1984 2084
1888 1988 2088
1892 1992 2092
1896 1996 2096
2000
2101 – 2400
2104 2204 2304
2108 2208 2308
2112 2212 2312
2116 2216 2316
2120 2220 2320
2124 2224 2324
2128 2228 2328
2132 2232 2332
2136 2236 2336
2140 2240 2340
2144 2244 2344
2148 2248 2348
2152 2252 2352
2156 2256 2356
2160 2260 2360
2164 2264 2364
2168 2268 2368
2172 2272 2372
2176 2276 2376
2180 2280 2380
2184 2284 2384
2188 2288 2388
2192 2292 2392
2196 2296 2396
2400

The Gregorian calendar was adopted in 1752 in Great Britain. Thus, leap years are those that are divisible by 4 and leap centuries are those centuries that are divisible by 400. The chances of gaining one extra day will occur after around 3,300 years in the current Gregorian calendar. If you are wondering when is the next leap year, then according to the above list of leap years, 2016 will be the next leap year. You must have noticed the blank spaces and are wondering if the year 1900 was a leap year or not? Or even the coming years 2100, 2200, and 2300 will be leap years or not? Well, the answer is no! This is because they are divisible by 100 and not 400.

We hope you have understood what exactly a leap year is and the history behind it. Here’s a short poem dedicated to leap years by an anonymous poet:
Thirty days hath September,
April, June and November.
All the rest have thirty-one,
Excepting February alone,
And that has twenty-eight days clear
And twenty-nine in each leap year.

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This is how the 1/9 Marines became ‘The Walking Dead’

In the annals of Marine Corps history there are many famous units and numerous famous men. There are tales of valor and loss.

But one unit truly exemplifies these traditions through its actions and its enduring nickname: the Walking Dead.

Through nearly four years of combat in Vietnam, the 1 st Battalion, 9 th Marines earned its place in Marine Corps history.

Lance Cpl. Spencer Cohen, rifleman with 1st platoon, Alpha Company, Battalion Landing Team 1st Battalion, 9th Marine Regiment, 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit, traverses a path for his team through rocky terrain during a mechanized assault as part of a live fire range in Djibouti, Africa, March 29. (Photo by Sgt. Alex C. Sauceda)

The 1 st Battalion first arrived in Vietnam in June 1965 as part of the troop increase and escalation that year as U.S. forces took over most combat operations from the South Vietnamese. By August they were involved in offensive combat operations as part of Operation Blastout — a search and clear mission.

More missions continued throughout 1965 and into 1966. In their first year in Vietnam the Marines of 1/9 would conduct hundreds of company-sized or larger missions. The Marines of the 1 st battalion, as part of a greater effort by the 9 th Marine Regiment, also developed the SPARROW HAWK concept. This was essentially a heliborne quick reaction force that could be called in to help win a fight in which Marines on patrol had found themselves. The 1 st Battalion, 9 th Marines then rotated out of Vietnam for a few brief months beginning in October 1966.

When the unit returned in December 1966 the operations tempo greatly increased. The 1 st battalion Marines started 1967 with the anti-climactic Operation Deckhouse V. From there operations picked up in the 9 th Marines tactical area of responsibility. This area just south of the Demilitarized Zone became known as “Leatherneck Square” for the high number of Marine casualties. The Marines there swore the wind, rather than blowing, made a sucking sound. It was in this area that the 1 st Battalion 9 th Marines became the legendary Walking Dead.

The battalion participated in three phases of Operation Prairie within Leatherneck Square. Casualties were heavy as the Marines conducted search-and-destroy missions. In less than a month through mid-1967, Marine casualties during Prairie IV were 167 killed, and over 1,200 wounded.

In July, 1/9 participated in Operation Buffalo, a clearing mission up Highway 561. On the first day of the operation, July 2, the Marines of A and B companies encountered strong NVA resistance. The fighting was bitter. The NVA used flamethrowers to burn the vegetation and force the Marines into the open. An NVA artillery round wiped out the entire company headquarters for B company.

Soon the commander of 1/9 sent in C and D companies to relieve the battered Marines. With significant support they were finally able to force the NVA to break contact. The battalion suffered 84 Marines killed and 190 wounded. The next day only 27 Marines from B company and 90 from A company were fit for duty.

A combination of the remnants of Companies A and C several days later was able to get some payback on the NVA, inflicting 154 enemy killed. By the middle of July Operation Buffalo came to an end. Almost immediately the men of the 9 th Marines were back in action as part of Operation Kingfisher in the Western portion of Leatherneck Square. This operation drug on until the end of October 1967. The sporadic but intense combat saw another 340 Marines killed and over 1,400 wounded in Leatherneck Square.

January 1968 found the battalion reinforcing the infamous Khe Sanh Combat Base just south of the Demilitarized Zone and west of Leatherneck Square. The Marines at Khe Sanh not only held the base but also fought in the hills surrounding it. Just over a week before the Tet Offensive began on January 30, 1968, the North Vietnamese began laying siege to Khe Sanh. Some 6,000 Marines, including 1/9, would endure daily shelling and close-combat for 77 days before being relieved. In all, 205 Americans were killed and over 1,600 wounded defending Khe Sanh. A further 200 Marines died in the bloody fighting in the hills surrounding Khe Sanh.

The lifting of the siege was hardly the end for the Walking Dead though. Immediately upon relief of duty from the defense of Khe Sanh they began Operation Scotland II to clear the area nearby. Following the conclusion of Scotland II, the Marines of 1/9 returned to the Con Thien area and took part in Operation Kentucky. This action would last until near the end of 1968.

In early 1969, the 1 st battalion, as part of the larger 9 th Marine Regiment, launched Operation Dewey Canyon, the last major Marine Corps operation in Vietnam. During this time the Marines swept through the NVA controlled A Shau valley and other areas near the DMZ. In a heroic action on February 22, 1968, then-Lt. Wesley Fox earned the Medal of Honor. The Marines suffered over 1,000 casualties during the operation. The entire regiment was awarded a Presidential Unit Citation for their extraordinary heroism during Operation Dewey Canyon.

The Walking Dead — along with the rest of the 9 th Marines — redeployed from Vietnam in the summer of 1969 to Okinawa.

The name “the Walking Dead” was originally used by Ho Chi Minh talking about the Marines in the A Shau valley. Later, after the 1 st Battalion suffered extraordinarily high casualty rates, they used the term to describe themselves. Of a standard battalion strength of 800 Marines, the battalion had 747 killed in action with many times that number wounded. They also were in sustained combat operations for just short of four years. Both of these are Marine Corps records.

The unit was disbanded in mid-2000, reactivated for Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, then was disbanded again in 2015.


STARTUP FAILURE RATE STATISTICS

  • Of all small businesses started in 2014:
    • 80 percent made it to the second year (2015)
    • 70 percent made it to the third year (2016)
    • 62 percent made it to the fourth year (2017)
    • 56 percent made it to the fifth year (2018).
      of small business failure:
      • No market need: 42 percent
      • Ran out of cash: 29 percent
      • Not the right team: 23 percent
      • Got outcompeted: 19 percent
      • Pricing / Cost issues: 18 percent
      • User un-friendly product: 17 percent
      • Product without a business model: 17 percent
      • Poor marketing: 14 percent
      • Ignore customers: 14 percent and
      • Product mistimed: 13 percent.

      Gobind Singh, the 10th guru, created the order of Khalsa. He sacrificed his father, mother, sons, and his own life to protect Sikhs from forced conversion to Islam. He completed the Granth, bestowing upon it the title of everlasting guru.

      He was born in Bihar, India, on Dec. 22, 1666, and was the son of Guru Teg Bahadar and Mata Gujri ji. He married Jito ji (Ajit Kaur), Sundri, and Mata Sahib Kaur and had four sons, Ajit Singh, Jujhar Singh, Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh.

      He became the 10th guru at Anandpur, India, on Nov. 11, 1675, and died at Nanded, India, on Oct. 7, 1708, at the age of 41.


      Award-winning comedy icons Tina Fey and Amy Poehler are returning to the Golden Globes as co-hosts for the 2021 telecast.

      Fey and Poehler were critically applauded when they hosted the Globes from 2013-2015, receiving universal praise for their witty on-stage banter and effortless rapport with one another.

      Fey, along with Robert Carlock, is co-creator and an executive producer of NBC’s "Mr. Mayor" - a comedy series about a retired businessman who becomes mayor of Los Angeles, starring Ted Danson and Holly Hunter - from Universal Television, a division of Universal Studio Group.

      Fey has won two Golden Globes and six Emmys for writing and/or acting for the multi-Emmy Award-winning comedy "30 Rock" and "Saturday Night Live." Fey and Carlock are also producers of the series "Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt" from Netflix and Universal Television.

      Poehler is a Golden Globe and Emmy winner, well known for her portrayal of eternal optimist Leslie Knope on NBC's beloved comedy "Parks and Recreation." She is currently an executive producer of the Emmy-nominated Netflix comedy "Russian Doll" and executive producer/co-host of NBC's "Making It." She also is an executive producer and co-star of the animated series "Duncanville" on FOX.


      The history of zika virus

      The rise in the spread of Zika virus has been accompanied by a rise in cases of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. First identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys, Zika was later identified in humans in 1952. The first large outbreak of disease caused by Zika infection was reported from the Island of Yap in 2007. There are currently several countries experiencing Zika virus outbreaks.

      Zika: The origin and spread of a mosquito-borne virus
      The following article summarizes the spread of Zika infection from the earliest discovery in 1947 to 7 February 2016.

      1947: Scientists conducting routine surveillance for yellow fever in the Zika forest of Uganda isolate the Zika virus in samples taken from a captive, sentinel rhesus monkey.
      1948: The virus is recovered from the mosquito Aedes africanus, caught on a tree platform in the Zika forest.
      1952: The first human cases are detected in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania in a study demonstrating the presence of neutralizing antibodies to Zika virus in sera.

      1969&ndash1983: The known geographical distribution of Zika expands to equatorial Asia, including India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Pakistan, where the virus is detected in mosquitos. As in Africa, sporadic human cases occur but no outbreaks are detected and the disease in humans continues to be regarded as rare, with mild symptoms.
      2007: Zika spreads from Africa and Asia to cause the first large outbreak in humans on the Pacific island of Yap, in the Federated States of Micronesia. Prior to this event, no outbreaks and only 14 cases of human Zika virus disease had been documented worldwide.
      2013&ndash2014: The virus causes outbreaks in four other groups of Pacific islands: French Polynesia, Easter Island, the Cook Islands, and New Caledonia.26,27 The outbreak in French Polynesia, generating thousands of suspected infections, is intensively investigated. The results of retrospective investigations are reported to WHO on 24 November 2015 and 27 January 2016.

      2 March 2015: Brazil notifies WHO of reports of an illness characterized by skin rash in northeastern states. From February 2015 to 29 April 2015, nearly 7000 cases of illness with skin rash are reported in these states. All cases are mild, with no reported deaths. Zika was not suspected at this stage, and no tests for Zika were carried out.
      1 February 2016: WHO declares that the recent association of Zika infection with clusters of microcephaly and other neurological disorders constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

      The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted and dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.


      The Constitutional Convention

      A chief aim of the Constitution as drafted by the Convention was to create a government with enough power to act on a national level, but without so much power that fundamental rights would be at risk. One way that this was accomplished was to separate the power of government into three branches, and then to include checks and balances on those powers to assure that no one branch of government gained supremacy. This concern arose largely out of the experience that the delegates had with the King of England and his powerful Parliament. The powers of each branch are enumerated in the Constitution, with powers not assigned to them reserved to the States.

      Much of the debate, which was conducted in secret to ensure that delegates spoke their minds, focused on the form that the new legislature would take. Two plans competed to become the new government: the Virginia Plan, which apportioned representation based on the population of each State, and the New Jersey plan, which gave each State an equal vote in Congress. The Virginia Plan was supported by the larger States, and the New Jersey plan preferred by the smaller. In the end, they settled on the Great Compromise (sometimes called the Connecticut Compromise), in which the House of Representatives would represent the people as apportioned by population the Senate would represent the States apportioned equally and the President would be elected by the Electoral College. The plan also called for an independent judiciary.

      The founders also took pains to establish the relationship between the States. States are required to give “full faith and credit” to the laws, records, contracts, and judicial proceedings of the other States, although Congress may regulate the manner in which the States share records, and define the scope of this clause. States are barred from discriminating against citizens of other States in any way, and cannot enact tariffs against one another. States must also extradite those accused of crimes to other States for trial.

      The founders also specified a process by which the Constitution may be amended, and since its ratification, the Constitution has been amended 27 times. In order to prevent arbitrary changes, the process for making amendments is quite onerous. An amendment may be proposed by a two-thirds vote of both Houses of Congress, or, if two-thirds of the States request one, by a convention called for that purpose. The amendment must then be ratified by three-fourths of the State legislatures, or three-fourths of conventions called in each State for ratification. In modern times, amendments have traditionally specified a time frame in which this must be accomplished, usually a period of several years. Additionally, the Constitution specifies that no amendment can deny a State equal representation in the Senate without that State’s consent.

      With the details and language of the Constitution decided, the Convention got down to the work of actually setting the Constitution to paper. It is written in the hand of a delegate from Pennsylvania, Gouverneur Morris, whose job allowed him some reign over the actual punctuation of a few clauses in the Constitution. He is also credited with the famous preamble, quoted at the top of this page. On September 17, 1787, 39 of the 55 delegates signed the new document, with many of those who refused to sign objecting to the lack of a bill of rights. At least one delegate refused to sign because the Constitution codified and protected slavery and the slave trade.


      Activism in the Social Media Age

      This month marks the fifth anniversary of the #BlackLivesMatter hashtag, which was first coined following the acquittal of George Zimmerman in the shooting death of unarmed black teenager Trayvon Martin. In the course of those five years, #BlackLivesMatter has become an archetypal example of modern protests and political engagement on social media: A new Pew Research Center analysis of public tweets finds the hashtag has been used nearly 30 million times on Twitter – an average of 17,002 times per day – as of May 1, 2018.

      The conversations surrounding this hashtag often center on issues related to race, violence and law enforcement, and its usage periodically surges surrounding real-world events – most prominently, during the police-related deaths of Alton Sterling and Philando Castile and the subsequent shooting of police officers in Dallas, Texas, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in July 2016. 1

      The rise of the #BlackLivesMatter hashtag – along with others like #MeToo and #MAGA (Make America Great Again) – has sparked a broader discussion about the effectiveness and viability of using social media for political engagement and social activism. To that end, a new survey by the Center finds that majorities of Americans do believe these sites are very or somewhat important for accomplishing a range of political goals, such as getting politicians to pay attention to issues (69% of Americans feel these platforms are important for this purpose) or creating sustained movements for social change (67%).

      Certain groups of social media users – most notably, those who are black or Hispanic – view these platforms as an especially important tool for their own political engagement. For example, roughly half of black social media users say these platforms are at least somewhat personally important to them as a venue for expressing their political views or for getting involved with issues that are important to them. Those shares fall to around a third among white social media users. 2

      At the same time, the public as a whole expresses mixed views about the potential broader impact these sites might be having on political discourse and the nature of political activism. Some 64% of Americans feel that the statement “social media help give a voice to underrepresented groups” describes these sites very or somewhat well. But a larger share say social networking sites distract people from issues that are truly important (77% feel this way), and 71% agree with the assertion that “social media makes people believe they’re making a difference when they really aren’t.” Blacks and whites alike offer somewhat mixed assessments of the benefits and costs of activism on social media. But larger majorities of black Americans say these sites promote important issues or give voice to underrepresented groups, while smaller shares of blacks feel that political engagement on social media produces significant downsides in the form of a distracted public or “slacktivism.”


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Comments:

  1. Kajigal

    Probably there

  2. Aramuro

    Rather useful piece

  3. Amey

    Congratulations, what are the right words ... brilliant thought

  4. Votaxe

    The amusing information

  5. Tukus

    I hope everyone is normal

  6. Zulurg

    I was pleasantly surprised how the author easily writes about everything that interests him. There is something in this!

  7. Brus

    Nice phrase

  8. Bernlak

    I against.



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