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A True New Deal: Building an Inclusive Economy in the COVID-19 Era
A True New Deal: Building an Inclusive Economy in the COVID-19 Era outlines nine essential policy proposals that would address our current crisis, rebalance power in our economy, and build the institutions necessary to seed lasting, equitable change:
- canceling student, housing, and medical debts&mdashand implementing structural
- change to address the accumulation of debt
- creating a federal jobs guarantee
- federalizing and expanding unemployment insurance
- building a modern Reconstruction Finance Corporation
- guaranteeing universal childcare
- mandating sectoral bargaining
- ensuring corporate accountability through federal chartering
- reinvigorating antitrust law for real trust-busting and
- rebalancing political power through institutional reform.
America is in crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic has sickened nearly 4 million people and killed more than 155,000, with no end in sight. The economy is collapsing&mdashdriven by COVID-19, to be sure, but also by much deeper underlying vulnerabilities that dictate the depth, breadth, and distribution of suffering. The sheer magnitude of this crisis can seem overwhelming, especially as it continues to expose and exacerbate the fragility of a US economy marked by profound racial and economic inequality.
These challenges call to mind those that President Franklin D. Roosevelt faced in 1932 as he prepared to take office. Similar to today, FDR&rsquos America needed bold, inventive government action to protect families, stabilize the economy, and build a more stable future. FDR&rsquos success in reshaping the American economy and society can and should serve as inspiration for responses to our country&rsquos present challenges, but as we draw inspiration from the New Deal&rsquos history, we must be careful to heed all of its lessons.
Throughout US history, moments of transformative public change&mdashincluding the New Deal&mdashhave often compromised and sacrificed the economic interest and overall well-being of Black people and other groups. Today&rsquos New Deal must be different, dismantling policy choices that reward and replicate white supremacy and patriarchy, reclaiming public power from private hands, and building institutions that ensure broadly shared prosperity.
A True New Deal: Building an Inclusive Economy in the COVID-19 Era makes the compelling case for an actualized New Deal&mdasha structural policy agenda that, by leading with inclusion, will not only tide us through the ongoing COVID-19 crisis but build a more resilient, equitable, and moral 21st century economy. One that creates a foundation for everyone&mdashof all races&mdashto thrive. As this report shows, achieving fully realized economic justice is within reach, and this could be the moment for such change. A true, inclusive New Deal for the 21st century can help us reclaim power for the people today, tomorrow, and for generations to come.
Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal - HISTORY
Franklin Delano Roosevelt: A New Deal for America
It’s the 1930’s and unemployment is up to 33%. America’s president, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, must rally a nation demoralized by poverty, hunger, housing shortages and labor disputes escalating to riots. Unable to walk without crutches, FDR was able through the sheer power of his personality, his political skill and his eloquent Fireside Chat rhetoric, to lead America from fear to federal programs that eventually break through the economic crisis of the Great Depression. Neill Hartley’s FDR: A New Deal for America is a collage of personalities from a watershed period in United States history. When Hartley sings Brother, Can You Spare A Dime? he expresses the prevailing despair, while Hartley’s humor, courtesy of Will Rogers, is a reminder that there is always hope. Hartley leaves his audience with a final speech from FDR, in profile seated in a car with his signature cigarette holder, describing what he envisions for America. We are left to wonder whether FDR, the most powerful man alive at the time, abused the power a grateful nation had placed with him. Or whether he was the right person at the right time to do what needed to be done.
What are the remarkable achievements made by the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt?
In spite of the above defect, it cannot be denied that the New Deal had remarkable achievements to its credit. A number of measures adopted by New Deal Administration have survived the test of the time and have come to stay in society. Some of the prominent accomplishments of the New Deal Administration were as Mows:
1. It helped a large number of people, caught in the worst depression in American history, by providing them jobs, financing farm and home mortgages. Though vigorous banking policy the administration saved many people from grave difficulty. Its relief programmes enabled the unfortunate people to earn money without sacrificing their self-respect.
2. The Work Progress Administration (W.P.A.) and Public Works Administration (P.W.A.) rendered valuable services to the country by constructing roads, bridges, schools, hospitals and works of art.
Similarly the Tennessce Valley Authority (T.V.A.) helped in the transformation of the great region by bringing under cultivation millions of acres and helping in the establishment or prosperous industries.
3. In the sphere of social security also the New Deal Administration helped in removing the American backwardness and provided for schemes like old age pensions, unemployment insurance etc. In subsequent years the scope of social security measures further widened.
4. The other measures of New Deal Administration like regulation of stock exchange, issuance of securities, the control of the output of crops, the restrictions of working hours, and collective bargaining between employers and workers have come to be accepted as a part of the normal American life. 1. In the financial sphere Roosevelt liberated the minds of the American people from the idea that governmental deficit was something to be avoided at all costs.
Now it is accepted on all hands that there are considerations such as national security or deflation which justify government actions of spending more than its receipts. This was an unconscious contribution of the New Deal Administration because Roosevelt never understood the theory working behind it.
6. The New Deal period also produced better economic results in the long run. By advancing the interests of the farmers and the workers, it developed a broader basis of consuming power and thus laid a firmer foundation for industrial prosperity.
According to Prof. John Kenneth Galbraith, Roosevelt by balancing the power of the worker and the agriculturist against the power of concentrated capital, brought a situation in which ruthless domination by a single group is less likely than ever before. It introduced in economic sphere the same system of checks and balances which Americans have adopted in their political system.
7. “Probably the greatest achievement of New Deal” according to Profs. Hicks and Mowrey “was to recreate a feeling of confidence in the American people that government at Washington was really their government and that it could be used just as energetically to fight the enemies of the good life within the country as it could those from without.”
8. Another important result of the New Deal was that the citizens were made to recognize the new role of the government in American life and people could look to Federal Government for fair and decent conditions of life.
The people also realized that the vast resources of the country should be used by national planning for the benefit of all the people and not merely for the good of few capitalists.
9. The New Deal Administration demonstrated the value of powerful Presidential leadership and demonstrated that democratic system was also capable of dealing with crisis effectively.
As Prof. Bailey has said: “He (Roosevelt) helped preserve democracy in America at a time when democracies abroad were disappearing down the dictatorial drain. And in playing this role lie unwillingly girded the nation for its part in the titanic war that hung on the horizon, a war in which democracy the world over would be at stake.” 1
In the light of the above discussion it can be said in conclusion that though the New Deal Administration could not fully solve the problems of unemployment and depression, yet it cannot be denied that the New Deal Administration succeeded in preventing the destruction of American economic and political system. In fact as a result of New Deal policies during the years 1933-38, the American economic system was further strengthened.
“Indian New Deal”
In the 1930s, in an effort to remedy the hardships Native Americans had faced under U.S. policy, Commissioner of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) John Collier took advantage of the reformist spirit of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Presidency to change the course of U.S.-American Indian relations.
American Indian policy in the late 1800s undermined native culture by forcing Native Americans to assimilate into the European-American lifestyle.
Native children were taken away from their families at a young age to off-reservation Indian boarding schools.
Moreover, the Dawes Act of 1887 instituted the practice of allotment—the division of tribal land into personal tracts—which destabilized native communal life.
Collier, a prominent activist for Native American rights, was well aware of the negative effects these policies had on Native American communities.
In 1923 Collier became the Secretary of the Indian Defense Association (IDA). During his tenure at the IDA, the Institute for Government Research released the Meriam Report, which detailed the poor condition of tribal economies and the utter destitution in the Indian country.
According to the report, the average national per capita income in 1920 was $1,350 while the average Native American made only $100 a year.
The Meriam Report implicated U.S. Indian policy in helping to create such poverty.
Collier set out to reform Indian policy after President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed him to serve as the head of the BIA in 1933. The Collier era saw a dramatic change in the direction of U.S. American Indian policy, and that change would be initiated by the “Indian New Deal.”
Instead of the goal of immediate and total assimilation, Collier set about to preserve what remained of American Indian culture. As an initiative of the Indian New Deal, he hired anthropologists to document Indian languages and ways of life.
Indian Agencies hired photographers to capture Native American culture.
Collier also helped establish the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, tasked with promoting and preserving Native American material culture.
The Arts and Craft Board established a system of authenticating products and enacting marketing strategies which led to some economic development for certain Native American groups during the country’s most severe depression.
The Indian New Deal also forwarded the cause of Native American education. Curricular committees serving Native Americans began to incorporate the languages and customs that had been documented by Government-funded anthropologists in their newly bilingual syllabi.
While the Government continued to mandate that Native Americans attend Federal schools, it subsidized the creation of 100 community day schools on tribal lands.
The Johnson-O’Malley Act of 1934, which Collier helped to steer through Congress, offered states Federal dollars to support their Native American education, health care, and agricultural assistance programs.
To ease unemployment, thousands of Native Americans were employed under a separate division of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC). This division, which was popularly abbreviated as the CCC-ID, allowed Native Americans to work on public works projects on their own reservations.
The Indian New Deal’s premiere piece of legislation was the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 (IRA).
The IRA abolished the allotment program detailed in the Dawes Act and made funds available to Native American groups for the purchase of lost tribal lands. It required that Indians receive preferential treatment when applying to BIA jobs on the reservation. Finally, the IRA called for a referendum on home rule and self-governance, asking tribes to vote to establish new tribal councils.
While it was not a wholesale success, the Indian New Deal was integral in changing U.S. Government policies toward American Indians.
Visit our website to learn more about the historical records relating to Native Americans in National Archives’ holdings.
Roosevelt and the Revolutionary New Deal
President Franklin D. Roosevelt&rsquos &ldquoNew Deal&rdquo was the ultimate reform movement, providing bold reform without bloodshed or revolution. Although many Americans criticized President Roosevelt for his &ldquotry anything&rdquo approach and wasteful spending, Roosevelt saved the American system of free enterprise by stepping in and actually doing something to help the unemployed, starving masses during the Great Depression. Before Roosevelt was elected, the gap between the haves and have-nots was ever-widening and the country probably would have experienced a revolution if another laissez-faire president like Hoover had been elected in 1932. When Roosevelt was elected, he created a series of reforms to deal with the countless problems in American society many failed, though some achieved long-lasting success and exist to this day. The New Deal was the ultimate &ldquorevolution&rdquo providing lasting reforms like Social Security and the Fair Labor Standards Act, and establishing precedents that continue to shape the lives of millions of Americans to this day.
Roosevelt was a radical president in many ways, expanding Federal power and establishing numerous precedents that have served to empower the federal government ever since. Unlike previous presidents, Roosevelt believed that the American government had an obligation to help its citizens in a crisis. Roosevelt also felt that doing anything was better than doing nothing and he was criticized frequently for this. Nonetheless, most of his &ldquoalphabet agencies&rdquo served their purposes and provided immediate rather than long-term relief to over nine million desperate Americans. He started by creating the Civilian Conservation Corps, or CCC, which provided employment in government camps for three million young men. These men served doing useful, but (some would say) unnecessary tasks like reforesting, firefighting, draining swamps, and controlling floods. The Works Progress Administration, or WPA, was another extremely helpful agency during the Depression, putting $11 million dollars into public buildings, bridges, and hard-surfaced roads, creating millions of new jobs. To the American people who were used to coming into contact with the government only at the post office and on other infrequent occasions, Roosevelt&rsquos system was ground-breaking never before had the government intervened to help farmers in need (AAA), or homeowners struggling with mortgages (HOLC), or families starving during the winter (CWA). Roosevelt had no uncertainties or misgivings about the use of Federal money to help Americans. If the U.S. government would not help its own citizens, then who would? Roosevelt also made other revolutionary changes with his New Deal.
The plight of the worker had always been of concern to Roosevelt, and he did much during his time as president to improve overall working conditions. Firstly, Roosevelt set up the National Recovery Administration, or NRA, to assist labor unions in their struggle against greedy corporations. The NRA, for the first time in American history, guaranteed the right for labor union members to choose their own representatives in bargaining. The Fair Labor Standards Act, or &ldquoWages and Hours Bill&rdquo, established maximum hours of labor, minimum wages, and forbid children under the age of sixteen from working. By limiting the number of hours a single worker could work, Roosevelt created new jobs and improved the working conditions for existing workers. Roosevelt was one of the first Presidents to earnestly fight for the rights of the average worker. The Fair Labor Standards Act is still in use today (though the monetary values have been increased to account for seventy years of inflation), and unions still have the rights that Roosevelt guaranteed to them with the NRA. Roosevelt, it seemed, went out of his way to ensure that workers were treated fairly and given their due rights. Roosevelt&rsquos crowning achievement to Americans was the Social Security Act, which he signed in 1935, creating the pension, insurance for the old-aged, the blind, the physically handicapped, delinquent, and other dependents by taxing employees and employers in essence, Americans were providing for their own futures. Social Security still exists today, and though some people oppose it, it no doubt provides a valuable service to people unable to care for themselves&mdashwhich was Roosevelt&rsquos strong point: appealing to the &ldquoforgotten man&rdquo. However, he had yet another lasting achievement that truly revolutionized America.
After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, it became apparent that speculation and overselling stocks and bonds were key causes of the crash. Roosevelt passed the Federal Securities Act to encourage honesty during the sale of stocks and bonds promoters were required to transmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their investments. While many crooked businessmen hated Roosevelt for this, many historians argue that his wise actions saved the American system from untimely demise. With the passage of this Act, Roosevelt encouraged fairer trading and less speculation, which ultimately revitalized the American economy.
Roosevelt was a revolutionary for his time. He challenged the accepted role of government in society by intervening to improve the quality of life for countless Americans. Though his actions were controversial, it is clear that they had a positive effect on American society. Ultimately, though, it would take World War II to lift the American economy out of the Great Depression Roosevelt&rsquos New Deal served to satisfy the American people&rsquos demands for action until America joined the war in 1941.
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Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal - HISTORY
Posters like this showing the extent of the Federal Art Project were used to prove the worth of the WPA’s various endeavors and, by extension, the value of the New Deal to the American people. “Employment and Activities poster for the WPA’s Federal Art Project,” January 1, 1936. Wikimedia.
The early years of the Depression were catastrophic. The crisis, far from relenting, deepened each year. Unemployment peaked at 25% in 1932. With no end in sight, and with private firms crippled and charities overwhelmed by the crisis, Americans looked to their government as the last barrier against starvation, hopelessness, and perpetual poverty.
Few presidential elections in modern American history have been more consequential than that of 1932. The United States was struggling through the third year of the Depression and exasperated voters overthrew Hoover in a landslide to elect the Democratic governor of New York, Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Roosevelt came from a privileged background in New York’s Hudson River Valley (his distant cousin, Theodore Roosevelt, became president while Franklin was at Harvard). Franklin Roosevelt embarked upon a slow but steady ascent through state and national politics. In 1913, he was appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy, a position he held during the defense emergency of World War I. In the course of his rise, in the summer of 1921, Roosevelt suffered a sudden bout of lower-body pain and paralysis. He was diagnosed with polio. The disease left him a paraplegic, but, encouraged and assisted by his wife, Eleanor, Roosevelt sought therapeutic treatment and maintained sufficient political connections to reenter politics. In 1928, Roosevelt won election as governor of New York. He oversaw the rise of the Depression and drew from progressivism to address the economic crisis. During his gubernatorial tenure, Roosevelt introduced the first comprehensive unemployment relief program and helped to pioneer efforts to expand public utilities. He also relied on like-minded advisors. For example, Frances Perkins, then commissioner of the state’s Labor Department, successfully advocated pioneering legislation which enhanced workplace safety and reduced the use of child labor in factories. Perkins later accompanied Roosevelt to Washington and serve as the nation’s first female Secretary of Labor.
On July 1, 1932, Roosevelt, the newly-designated presidential nominee of the Democratic Party, delivered the first and one of the most famous on-site acceptance speeches in American presidential history. Building to a conclusion, he promised, “I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people.” Newspaper editors seized upon the phrase “new deal,” and it entered the American political lexicon as shorthand for Roosevelt’s program to address the Great Depression. There were, however, few hints in his political campaign that suggested the size and scope of the “New Deal.” Regardless, Roosevelt crushed Hoover. He won more counties than any previous candidate in American history. He spent the months between his election and inauguration traveling, planning, and assembling a team of advisors, the famous “Brain Trust” of academics and experts, to help him formulate a plan of attack. On March 4th, 1933, in his first Inaugural Address, Roosevelt famously declared, “This great Nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper. So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself—nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance.”
Roosevelt’s reassuring words would have rung hollow if he had not taken swift action against the economic crisis. In his first days in office, Roosevelt and his advisers prepared, submitted, and secured Congressional enactment of numerous laws designed to arrest the worst of the Great Depression. His administration threw the federal government headlong into the fight against the Depression.
Roosevelt immediately looked to stabilize the collapsing banking system. He declared a national “bank holiday” closing American banks and set to work pushing the Emergency Banking Act swiftly through Congress. On March 12th, the night before select banks reopened under stricter federal guidelines, Roosevelt appeared on the radio in the first of his “Fireside Chats.” The addresses, which the president continued delivering through four terms, were informal, even personal. Roosevelt used his airtime to explain New Deal legislation, to encourage confidence in government action, and to mobilize the American people’s support. In the first “chat,” Roosevelt described the new banking safeguards and asked the public to place their trust and their savings in banks. Americans responded and across the country, deposits outpaced withdrawals. The act was a major success. In June, Congress passed the Glass-Steagall Banking Act, which instituted federal deposit insurance and barred the mixing of commercial and investment banking.
Stabilizing the banks was only a first step. In the remainder of his “First Hundred Days,” Roosevelt and his congressional allies focused especially on relief for suffering Americans. Congress debated, amended, and passed what Roosevelt proposed. As one historian noted, the president “directed the entire operation like a seasoned field general.” And despite some questions over the constitutionality of many of his actions, Americans and their congressional representatives conceded that the crisis demanded swift and immediate action. The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) employed young men on conservation and reforestation projects the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) provided direct cash assistance to state relief agencies struggling to care for the unemployed the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) built a series of hydroelectric dams along the Tennessee River as part of a comprehensive program to economically develop a chronically depressed region several agencies helped home and farm owners refinance their mortgages. And Roosevelt wasn’t done.
The heart of Roosevelt’s early recovery program consisted of two massive efforts to stabilize and coordinate the American economy: the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) and the National Recovery Administration (NRA). The AAA, created in May 1933, aimed to raise the prices of agricultural commodities (and hence farmers’ income) by offering cash incentives to voluntarily limit farm production (decreasing supply, thereby raising prices). The National Industrial Recovery Act, which created the National Recovery Administration (NRA) in June 1933, suspended antitrust laws to allow businesses to establish “codes” that would coordinate prices, regulate production levels, and establish conditions of employment to curtail “cutthroat competition.” In exchange for these exemptions, businesses agreed to provide reasonable wages and hours, end child labor, and allow workers the right to unionize. Participating businesses earned the right to display a placard with the NRA’s “Blue Eagle,” showing their cooperation in the effort to combat the Great Depression.
The programs of the First Hundred Days stabilized the American economy and ushered in a robust though imperfect recovery. GDP climbed once more, but even as output increased, unemployment remained stubbornly high. Though the unemployment rate dipped from its high in 1933, when Roosevelt was inaugurated, vast numbers remained out of work. If the economy could not put people back to work, the New Deal would try. The Civil Works Administration (CWA) and, later, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) put unemployed men and women to work on projects designed and proposed by local governments. The Public Works Administration (PWA) provided grants-in-aid to local governments for large infrastructure projects, such as bridges, tunnels, schoolhouses, libraries, and America’s first federal public housing projects. Together, they provided not only tangible projects of immense public good, but employment for millions. The New Deal was reshaping much of the nation.
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT AND THE NEW DEAL
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) was the Democratic candidate for president. Roosevelt, a wealthy aristocrat, was a distant cousin of Teddy Roosevelt, and his wife was Teddy's niece Eleanor. FDR had been the Democratic nominee for vice president in 1920 — tall, athletic, and maybe just a little stuck up. Beaten for vice president in the Harding landslide, in 1921 he was struck by a disease that paralyzed his legs for life. He didn't give up, but he did begin to see what a struggle life could be for what he called the forgotten man.
FDR was governor of New York when the Depression hit, and he immediately launched relief programs that reached worried people. His campaign song is still a theme for the Democratic party: "Happy Days Are Here Again." People believed in his hope and determination, and Roosevelt beat Hoover in a landslide.
His inaugural address contained now-famous words, quoted here in a slightly extended version to show their serious context: "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself — nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance."
Roosevelt's New Deal (1933) program centered on three R's: relief, recovery, and reform:
- First, FDR wanted to provide immediate relief from hunger and homelessness, very real problems in 1933 when one out of four Americans was unemployed.
- Second, the New Deal hoped to help the economy recover so that people would have stable jobs and businesses with which to support themselves.
- Third, the Democrats planned to reform the system so that no American would have to suffer another Great Depression again.
A newly elected, heavily Democratic Congress passed a great amount of legislation so quickly that it became known as the Hundred Days (1933) of the new administration. Roosevelt wanted to fix agriculture, banks, and jobs without nationalizing basic industries.
Question: What were Roosevelt's key aims with the New Deal?
Answer: FDR wanted to save the country and the capitalist system by reforming banks, agriculture, and jobs without nationalizing major industries.
Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal - HISTORY
As the Great Depression deepened, Americans looked for a new leader. Franklin D Roosevelt won a landslide victory over President Hoover in the 1932 election. Roosevelt’s critics thought he was “too feeble and wishy-washy” to make a difference, but he proved them wrong. During his inaugural address, he said, “Let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself – nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror.” He quickly made changes that reenergized the country and brought hope.
- Franklin D. Roosevelt was born into a wealthy family from New York. He lived a privileged life and was taught at home by tutors. He married his distant cousin, Eleanor Roosevelt, who was the niece of President Theodore Roosevelt.
- Roosevelt graduated from Columbia Law School and began a career in politics. He served in the New York Senate and as assistant secretary of the navy. In 1921, he became ill with polio and was paralyzed from the waist down. His wife, Eleanor, showed a quiet strength, supporting him in his recovery and helping him regain his political career. With her help, he was elected governor of New York.
- When Roosevelt was elected President, he gathered a group of economic, agricultural, legal, and financial experts to discuss solutions for the country’s problems. When he took office, he immediately made sweeping changes based on his “Three Rs:” Relief Programs, aimed at helping the needy Reform Programs, designed to change the situations that had helped cause the Great Depression and Recovery Programs, which helped restore the economy and send people back to work.
- The Public Works Administration, for example, funded the building of schools, gardens, parks, and city halls, giving many people new jobs. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration encouraged farmers to plant fewer crops and raise fewer animals, which caused food prices to go up and increased farmers’ profits.
- The government spent billions of dollars on New Deal programs, which did help ease suffering, but did not completely bring an end to the Great Depression. During Roosevelt’s second term in office, he announced a second New Deal, which created even more government programs, such as social security, unemployment insurance, and welfare. Many of his programs still exist today.
- Inaugural address: the speech a new President gives as he or she takes office
- Privileged: to be given special or unusual opportunities
- Polio: a debilitating disease that was common during the early 20th century
- Social security: a government program in which senior citizens are sent a monthly check based on the income they earned during their working years the disabled can also benefit from social security.
Questions and Answers
Question:Did Roosevelt’s second New Deal end the Great Depression?
Answer: Just as President Obama’s stimulus package helped ease, but not completely reverse, economic struggles in the 2008-2010 recession, Roosevelt’s programs gave Americans jobs and a renewed sense of hope, but didn’t entirely solve the problems of the Great Depression. By the late 1930s, the economy had weakened even more, in spite of Roosevelt’s programs, and many voters were concerned that government had grown too big and created too many programs.
National Recovery Administration (NRA) and the New Deal: A Resource Guide
Have a question? Need assistance? Use our online form to ask a librarian for help.
Ellen Terrell, Business Reference Specialist, Science, Technology & Business Division
This is a guide created from two separate guides. The National Recovery Administration: an Inventory of Publications in LC Collections created by Lara Beth Jackson, Jr. Fellow Intern (Summer 2011) and The New Deal at 80+ by Ellen Terrell (2009).
Created: January 2020
Update: July 1, 2020