Ptolemaic Blue Faience Bowl

Ptolemaic Blue Faience Bowl


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Ancient Egyptian Faience Djed Pillar Amulet - 33mm - 26×9×0 mm - (1)

A blue Djed Pillar amulet, with four parallel bars which supported the heavens, suspension to rear through the pillar.

Meaning: Representing the back bone of Osiris and symbolising strength and stability.

Blue glaze a little dull but nice surfaces, complete with suspension loop. Mounted to small wooden block.

33mm tall-49mm tall including block

Ref: Amulets by Petrie, plate III

Provenance
The seller of this lot hereby guarantees that this object was obtained legally. Ex D collection 1930's, Ex JC collection.
The Supplier warrants that is has obtained this lot in a legal manner.
Related documents seen by Catawiki.

Proud to be BNTA and ADA members and as such abide by their strict code of ethics. All items offered are AUTHENTIC and unconditionally GUARANTEED to be GENUINE.

Important information.
The seller guarantees that he is entitled to ship this lot.
The seller will take care that any necessary permits will be arranged.
The seller will inform the buyer about this if this takes more than a few days


Ptolemaic Blue Faience Bowl - History

By Evan Smith, Jordan Poston, Meg Swaney and Sanchita Balachandran

Description

In ancient Egypt a model of something was just as effective as the thing it represented, and Egyptians often opted to include models in their burials rather than full-sized–and perhaps sometimes more expensive–objects. Such models were frequently made of faience, a material which itself had a wide array of symbolic associations. The Egyptian word for faience (tehenet) is the feminine form of the word (tehen) “to dazzle,” and the bright shining surfaces of these faience vessels are readily apparent. Their vivid greenish-blue color was also associated with regeneration. The small lotus chalice (ECM 1564) and the flask (ECM 456), each with lotus petals indicated in black around their bodies, take this symbolism further, as the blue lotus was associated with rebirth and often appears in banqueting scenes where copious amounts of wine were drunk, perhaps from full-sized versions of similar vessels. The black markings around the rim and shoulder of the small jar (ECM 430) with wide mouth, everted rim, and drop-shaped body with lug handles at shoulder may also represent some sort of vegetal motif. Many of these vessels likely represent objects made in a different material, perhaps ceramic or hard stone, the latter of which the Egyptians were especially skilled in crafting into fine vessels.

Technical Research

As examined by undergraduate students Evan Smith and Jordan Poston, all of these miniature vessels were hand-modeled in Egyptian faience paste, mostly by coiling and smoothing, and were glazed with copper-based colorants that provide the rich blue-green hue that most still retain. Most of the painted black lines on these objects were created with a manganese-rich colorant still detectable by x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). X-radiography of these tiny vessels also provided delightful details into their production, showing clearly how coils were used to form the faience paste into the desired shape, or how holes were drilled post-firing.

X-radiography, in combination with a study of the different glaze compositions using XRF provided an interesting insight into more recent repairs to at least one of these objects. In the case of ECM 453, an x-ray provides evidence that the object is actually composed of two different objects that were attached and covered with a black wax-like band to conceal the repair. XRF of the two different parts of the vessel suggested significantly different glaze compositions, with lead present in the glaze of the lower portion of the object, but missing in the upper portion. This further corroborates the finding that this object is a composite of two objects, which were possibly even manufactured hundreds of years apart in time as the addition of lead may suggest a glaze made in the Ptolemaic period.


QUIMPER POTTERY & FRENCH FAIENCE EARTHENWARE

Quimper Faience refers to a fine grain earthenware decorated with an opaque, tin-based glaze. Each piece is completely hand painted without the use of decal or stencil by one of 48 painters (all but 4 are women). The majority of the patterns are painted on top of the raw glaze, which is a formidable process. Signed by the artist and completely painted by one person from start to finish, it reflects the individual touches which make each piece unique.

Painting Quimper is a true folk art, which has been passed down for generations. Each pattern requires a combination of different strokes and brushes. Artists spend 2 to 3 years learning the quick flicks of the wrist, a painting technique known as "coup de pinceau", creating the distinct naive designs that have come to be cherished by collectors around the world. An experienced painter decorates a plate in 25 minutes to one hour depending on the intricacy of the pattern.

Decor Henriot is the most traditional pattern showing the Breton figures. A Breton (or Bretonne if a woman) is a resident of Brittany. Brittany is a region in northwest France where the town of Quimper is located. This type of design has been applied continuously for 100 years and has been exported to America since the late 1800's. Over the years, thousands of molds and over 100 patterns have been created by the artisans at the factory. Patterns featuring peasant figures in bright traditional costumes, birds, and roosters (the symbol of France), and botanical scenes were designed for the various pieces. Slowly, these are being revived, and today the atelier produces 30 patterns as well as special orders for decors presently not in production.

Antique Quimper is sought after by collectors throughout Europe and America. Desirable pieces have recently sold at auction for as much as $10,000.

Present day Quimper is dishwasher safe and has been lead-free since the end of World War II. It is not microwave safe.

The handpainted French faience known as Quimper (pronounced kam-pair) dates back to 1690. It is earthenware fired with a tin-based glaze. The pottery takes it name from the town of Quimper, located in northwestern France, where potter Jean-Baptiste Bousquet built his kilns. Although the area of Locmaria in Quimper had long been associated with pottery as far back as Gallo-Roman times, Bousquet is credited with being the founder since he was the first to hire other artisans and form a factory.

In 1776 a rival factory was founded and a third pottery opened in 1778. The three firms produced faience independently and were able to survive difficult times in the 1800's by producing pipes and other utilitarian items. The artists originally painted with their fingers, and only a few forms and simple floral patterns were used.

During the late 1800's, Breton country life inspired the pottery's decorations under the direction of Alfred Beau and the Porquier factory. Items featuring the sturdy peasants in their traditional garb, men in bragoubraz (baggy pantaloons) and women in long dresses, aprons, and towering headdresses known as coiffes, and elaborate botanical scenes were introduced artistic earthenware objects were also created.

The two major factories, Eloury and Dumaine, merged in the early 1900's to form the Henriot factory, and the Bousquet factory was sold to Jules Verlingue and retained the name Grande Maison HB. In 1968, the son of Verlingue purchased the Henriot factory and merged them under the name Les Faienceries de Quimper, and under one roof at the HB factory, although each preserved its own forms, designs, clients, and signature marks.

In 1983, bad management and French laws intervened to force bankruptcy. The factory employed 250 people, but there was not enough work for all of them. Under French law, one cannot lay off workers without filing for bankruptcy. The owner Verlingue filed for bankruptcy and then tried to hire back 150 employees to reopen. The workers, who were unionized, vehemently opposed this move and succeeded in closing down the factory forcing him to declare bankruptcy again. The bankruptcy court then took over and put the factory up for sale. It was finally purchased in 1984 by Paul and Sarah Janssens of Stonington, Connecticut, who were the U.S. importers at the time. The factory reopened officially on March 14, 1984 and is enjoying an incredible rebirth with sales outnumbering demand. It employs today over 150 people both in France and the U.S.

QUIMPER MARKS

Marks should act as an adjunct to your opinion for example, there is a German HB mark and a French AP mark that look virtually identical to those used by Quimper factories. The decoration, mold, and colors tell you the whole truth the mark is just verification of what the decoration, mold, and colors are saying.

In general, older pieces are often not marked but if you come across a brightly decorated piece that isn't marked, it's most likely of post-WW II production. Early original pieces are very rare and those can be seen in museums or fine private collections. The vast majority of "antique" Quimper at antiques fairs nowadays are recent reproductions.

Where the piece is marked is not an indication of age. In general, the more involved the mark, the newer the piece. The marks are hand-painted each one will be different.

If the mark includes the word "Quimper", assume it's a 20th Century piece unless it depicts a Quimper scene (determined by the costume, coiffe, background, etc.) Early pieces may have just the title of the scene without a factory mark.

QUIMPER POTTERY TERMS

Arbustes - shrubs
Bannette - 2 handled tray
Biniou - bagpipe style instrument. The biniou is used as a form for many items and is often shown being played by a musician in a scene
Biscuit - pottery that has had its initial firing, and is waiting to be glazed
Bombarde - pipe-like musical instrument
Bonboniere - candy dish
Bragoubraz - baggy traditional pantaloons
Breton - male figure
Bretonne - female figure
Broderie design - raised embroiderie like painting style
Cache Pot - a decorative container to store things in, sometimes but not always having a lid
Coiffe - lace headdress
Coq - rooster (the symbol of France)
Coquetier - an egg cup
Coup de Pinceau - flick of the wrist brushstroke painting technique
Croisille décor - cross-hatching or lattice design, typically in red or blue
Couronnes border - flower leave border, frequently decorating the rim of plates
Cremier - small pitcher for milk
Decor Rich - style of painting, very deeply embellished, frequently in blue
Ermine's tail - a decorative mark
Four Dots - a decorative accent or dots often used in Quimper pottery
Fleur de Lys - symbol of the French royalty
Gros Filets - the circular lines or bands sometimes decorating the rims of plates
Ivoire Corbeille - a design which incorporated painting and sponging usually on a tan glaze
Jardiniere - a unique piece used for plants or flowers a planter
Pate - clay
Petit Dejeuner - a special plate and cup used for breakfast
Pitchet - pitcher
Porringers - two handled lug bowl used as bowls, plates, or cafe au lait bowls
Porte allumettes - a holder used for storing matches
Porte bouquet - small vase
Quintal - five fingered vase
Sucrier - covered pot for sugar
Soupiere - soup server with lid
Sponging - a technique where the paint is sponged on. Some of the earliest Quimper was sponged on.
Sujet Ordinaire - typical subject of Breton and/or Bretonne
Touche - simple brushstrokes (for example: A la Touche - brushstrokes that make up a border or design)


Ptolemaic Blue Faience Bowl - History

Saint-Amand-les-Eaux lies in northern France, 13 km from Valenciennes. The environment is perfect for establishing an earthenware factory: there are rivers, roads to transport the material and the products, and forests providing wood for the ovens.

In 1705 Nicolas Desmoutiers establishes the first earthenware factory in Saint Amand, where he produces tin-glazed faience.
His products are characterised by both multicoloured decorations and blue camaieu decorations en grand feu (decorations with flowers and animals). When Nicolas's daughter Marie-Josèphe marries in 1735, she and her husband Robert Flescher take over management of the company.
From 1736 several members of the Dorez family, descendants of the ceramist Barthélémy Dorez of Lille, rent the company. In 1775 the factory is sold to Bécart, who closes it in 1776 and moves to Valenciennes.

In 1718 Pierre Fauquez establishes a second earthenware factory in Saint Amand. Fauquez was the owner of a factory in Doornik (Belgium), but as a result of the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 he was cut off from his clients in Saint Amand. Hence he decides to move to Saint Amand where the conditions are more favorable (water ways, roads, forests).

His employees follow him from Doornik.
The company flourishes under his management from 1718 until 1740, then under the management of his son François-Joseph from 1740 until 1773 and finally under the management of his grandson Jean-Baptiste from 1773 until 1794.The French Revolution puts an end to the production in 1794.
The production of the factory was varied, both in form and decorations. Jean-Baptiste was fascinated by Chinese porcelain, like so many 18th century earthenware producers. Hence he produces porcelaine tendre with decorations in blue camaieu, inspired on the Doornik decorations. He produced faience fine, also called terre de pipe, with golden decorations.
A part of the production of the Fauquez factory has been marked, which makes it possible to attribute them to the factory, even when the origin of the decoration is doubted.

Dorchies and Herbo manage the third factory of Saint Amand from 1810 until 1817. In 1818 Maximilien Joseph de Bettignies, a ceramist from Doornik, takes over the small company. The production is varied and artistic. The objects are made of porcelaine tendre with Doornik decorations like acorns, laurel and cornflowers. They also produce tin-glazed earthenware with blue or multicoloured decorations, as well as little statues, busts and vases.
Encouraged by the success of the factory, De Bettignies constructs a new, larger factory in the hamlet of Du Moulin des Loups in Saint Amand. He specialises in the production of porcelaine tendre, also known as artificial porcelain. Unfortunately this gives big problems with disastrous consequences. On 17 December 1880 Gustave Dubois and Léandre Bloquiaux take over Maximilien de Bettignies' company. They produce tin-glazed earthenware in the style of Lunéville and Saint Clément.
In 1887 the factory becomes a Ltd. or an Inc. company and changes its name to "Manufacture de Faïence et de Porcelaines". In 1896 a second factory is opened in Wandignies-Hamage and the mark "Saint Amand et Hamage Nord" is registered. This company expands quickly. At the peak of the production the factory employs approximately 700 people.
In 1900 the "Société Amandinoise de Faïencerie" is established close to the train station.
"Ceranord" is established in 1908. Their emblem is a swan. From 1910 this factory, which registers the marks "Lustroceram" and "Orceram", profits from the cooperation with the tile factory in Saint Amand.
These companies are the only ones continuing their activities during the First World War.

After the First World War damage has been repaired, the company starts extracting clay for the production in Provins and rents a small company in Orchies (see Orchies ). This company expands and is in 1923 added to the parent company by a merger.
At first the company changes its name to "Faïence et Porcelaine St Amand-Orchies-Hamage". In 1928 the name is changed to "Manufacture de Moulin des Loups-Hamage" and in 1944 to "Les Manufacture de Faïence du Moulin des Loups".
Thus the company consists of 5 factories: two in Saint Amand, one in Wandignies-Hamage, one in Orchies and another one in Provins.
In 1952 the factory in Wandignies-Hamage ("Saint Amand et Hamage Nord") closes its doors. In 1954 most of the other factories are closed as well and only a small company (Ceranord) remains under the name "Les Grands Etablissements Céramique", which closes its doors in 1962.


Shelley History - The Products - Earthenware

The earliest earthenware production to bear the Wileman & Co. backstamp is known as "Art" pottery or "Arts & Crafts" wares. This ware bears the Wileman & Co. "Faience" stamp and has pattern number incised on the bottom/back. These pattern numbers have three ranges, a 10,000 series, which are generally Spanno Lustre wares an 11,000 series, which usually have Pâte-Sur-Pâte decoration and a 12,000 series, which are mostly a combination of Sgraffito and Drip decoration. The last three digits in the number is the shape number. Known Items of "Arts & Crafts" pottery include Vases, Jardiniéres, Toilet Ware and Wall Plaques.

Introduced by Frederick Rhead, "Intarsio" was probably the largest and most popular range of Art Pottery produced by Wileman & Co. To produce the under-glaze decoration a paper transfer of the design outline is first applied to a bisque fired body and then, with under-glaze colours and possibly coloured glazes, paintresses would fill in the outline using the specified colours. One can only admire the skill of the girls and ladies who rarely strayed outside the printed lines. Finally the ware was dipped in an earthenware glaze and fired to produce the glazed surface.

The range of Intarsio wares produced included Vases, Tea Caddies, Coffee Pots, Tea Pots, Jugs, Jardiniére and Pedestals, Flowerpots, Bowls, Wall Plaques, Covered Pots, Pen and Ink Well Sets, Model Animals. Toby Jugs, Candle Sticks, Letter Racks, Trinket Sets, Clock Cases, Stick Stands, Tiles, Biscuit Jars, Toilet Sets, Tobacco Jars etc.

Intarsio pattern numbers are primarily in the 3000 series with a few 7000 series numbers. Again the last digits began as the shape numbers, but when a shape was re-used with a different pattern this rule was broken.

The Second series of Urbato Ware has the same Wileman & Co. backstamp as the First series, but the method of decoration is very different. The bisque fired body would first have been coloured all over the area to be decorated with the specified under-glaze colour. The pattern of decoration would then have been applied, possibly using coloured glazes. Finally the pattern was outlined in white "tube lining", similar to that used by cake decorators and applied through a nozzle. There are examples where the tube lining is coloured to match the body colours, but it is clear that this colour has been applied over the original white. The decorated ware would then have been dipped in an earthenware glaze and fired to produce the glazed surface. It is clear that this process would have been very much less labour intensive than was that of the first series.

Known items include Vases, Clock Cases, Coffee Pots, Toilet Sets and Stick Stands

Second Series Urbato has 4000 series pattern numbers with the last digits being the shape number when the shape was re-used with a different colour of decoration a suffix A, B C etc was used.


Ptolemaic Blue Faience Bowl - History

Throughout their long history, the ancient Egyptians crafted luminous statues of bronze, copper, . more Throughout their long history, the ancient Egyptians crafted luminous statues of bronze, copper, silver, and gold for use in interactions with their gods—from ritual dramas enacted in the inner sanctuaries of temples to festival processions and celebrations attended by the multitudes. This volume, which accompanies an exhibition at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, is the first to focus on the art and significance of Egyptian metal statuary. Marshaling fresh insights to present a new appreciation of this lustrous work, the authors trace continuities in the development of the statuary, illuminate how its production was integrated within artistic and social structures, and examine its potential role in ritual practice.

Metal statuary offers a surprising view of Egyptian art because the cultural, social, and manufacturing networks from which it emerged were often different from those that produced stone statuary, the more familiar artistic expression of ancient Egypt. In the presence of these extraordinary images of gods and pious individuals, the temples, in particular, emerge as crucibles in which diverse influences came together to replenish the art and beliefs of Egyptian society. The superb statues and statuettes illustrated in this volume were made in a variety of precious metals and copper alloys over a span of some two millennia. Especially dramatic are those from the Third Intermediate Period (ca. 1070–664 B.C.), an era whose conventional name belies its great artistic accomplishment. The splendid statuary from this period, the apogee of the Egyptian metalworking tradition, is perhaps best represented by the sumptuous figure of a priestess and noblewoman named "Takushit," whose entire body surface is covered with texts and depictions of god intricately inlaid with thin strips of precious metal.

Also included in this volume are two essays on recent archaeological discoveries that shed light on poorly understood aspects of Egyptian metal statuary. These reports on excavations at the Sacred Animal Necropolis in North Saqqara and at the village of 'Ayn Manâwir in the Kharga Oasis yield insight into the practices surrounding temple statuary, notably that these works were provided by donors for actual use in the temple and, after many years of service, reverently decommissioned and buried in large caches. The final essay explores and explains the intricate technological aspects of Egyptian metal statuary as an integral part of its unique appeal. The technical descriptions provided for each work are thus as precise, detailed and consistent in terminology as possible—crucial considerations for a field of sculptural studies in which accurate information about manufacture and material is inextricably linked to an appreciation of the artistry and history of the medium.
Contributions by Laurent Coulon, Sue Davies, Élisabeth Delange, Richard Fazzini, Florence Gombert, Adela Oppenheim, Diana Craig Patch, Maarten Raven, Edna R. Russmann, John H. Taylor, Eleni Tourna, Maria Viglaki-Sofianou, Michel Wuttmann.


Glazed composition, more commonly known as faience, is an artificial ceramic material composed of silica (ground quartz powder or sand), alkali (typically natron or plant ash), and lime. When mixed with water, this material forms a paste which can be shaped by hand or poured into moulds, and hardens when fired. A colourant (typically a metal oxide) either within the body material, or applied as part of a second layer on top, reacts when fired to produce the bright colours typical of glazed composition. The most well-known colour of glazed compositon is blue or blue-green this was produced by copper oxide.

The term faience is actually a misnomer, as the ancient Egyptian material is completely unrelated to the glazed ceramics made in Faenza, Italy (now called majolica) from which the name derives. For this reason, ‘glazed composition’ is elsewhere used to describe the material. Glazed composition has been produced in Egypt since at least the 5th Millennium BC, where it was initially employed for producing jewellery and amulets in imitation of precious stone it is believed to have developed from the practice of glazing actual stones, such as steatite, to mimic the appearance of turqouise and lapis lazuli. Over time, production also developed to encompass larger figurines, jewellery and vessels, most famously the so-called ‘marsh bowls’ of the late Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom.

Ptolemaic and Roman glazed composition vessels represent a continuation of this manufacturing tradition, but also demonstrate typological and technological developments. Vessels of this time are characterised by heavier use of moulding and relief decoration. Earlier Ptolemaic vessels often have lighter and finer decoration, with Roman vessels typically bolder or deeper incised, although still employing similar motifs and styles. As well as the continuing manufacture of monochrome vessels, increasing numbers from this period demonstrate polychrome decoration, often two-tone green, green and blue, white and purple or white and brown. The contrast of colours is used to emphasise relief details, or differentiate interior and exterior surfaces.

Few kiln sites of the Ptolemaic and Roman Periods are known. However, Memphis, the ancient capital city in the North of Egypt, was a major centre of glazed composition production. Flinders Petrie’s excavations of the kilns at Kom Hellul in the Southern part of the site, in the early 1900s, have informed much of our knowledge of glazed composition ware production of this time.


Ptolemaic Blue Faience Bowl - History

Fayenceschale

Wittenberg, Lutherhaus Collegienstraße 54, 1. Hälfte 16. Jh.

Fayence, heller Scherben, kobaltblaues Dekor (ergänzt)

H 4,1 cm Dm Mündung 10,5 cm

Landesamt für Denkmalpflege und Archäologie Sachsen-Anhalt

Das Gefäß, ein Import aus Venetien, dürfte als Geschenk an den Lutherhaushalt gelangt sein. Möglicherweise erhielt der Reformator diese Keramik über einen langjährigen Freund.

Faience Bowl

Wittenberg, Luther House, Collegienstraße 54

1st-half of the 16th century

Faience, bright fragments, cobalt blue decoration (added)

State Office for Heritage Management and Archaeology, Saxony-Anhalt

This vessel, an import from Venice, likely came to the Luther household as a valuable gift. The Reformer may have received this piece of pottery from his old friend, Wenzeslaus Link.

Literature: Gutjahr, M., &lsquoFaience Bowl&rsquo, in: Harald Meller et al. (eds.), Martin Luther. Treasures of the Reformation. Dresden, 2016, No. 259

CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike


Danish Ceramics

The factory on Copenhagen’s Store Kongensgade (1724-1771) was the first in Scandinavia built to manufacture blue-and-white faience. Under the leadership of German-born Johann Ernst Pfau (1727-1749), the factory produced faience in the late-Baroque style, whose form and decoration were related to contemporary French and German products. Later the Rococo style made its breakthrough at the factory.

The Store Kongensgade Factory was soon unable to withstand competition from a number of new enterprises that were founded in Kastrup, near Copenhagen in Schleswig, Eckernförde, and Stockelsdorf, in modern-day Germany and in Herrebøe, in Norway. These factories were also able to produce polychrome faience.

In 1759, Louis Antoine Fournier was called to Denmark from France, and the soft-paste porcelain that he produced in the ensuing years was closely related to French products. Manufacture had to be discontinued as early as 1766, however, since it was impossible to sell the factory’s costly – and today extremely rare – porcelain.

Fournier’s workshop was taken over by an apothecary, Franz Heinrich Müller, who succeeded in making true hard-paste porcelain. The Royal Copenhagen Porcelain Manufactory was founded in 1775, and from 1779 was owned by Christian VII . Products were aimed at different private economies. The most expensive pieces were painted over the glaze in polychrome and with gold. The least expensive was porcelain painted in blue, such as the underglaze blue fluted pattern. Porcelain from Meissen and Sèvres provided many models for the Royal Copenhagen Porcelain Manufactory’s earliest forms and decorations.


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