Joseph Hebergam

Joseph Hebergam



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Joseph Hebergam was born in Huddersfield in 1815. Joseph was interviewed by Michael Sadler and his House of Commons Committee on 1st June, 1832.

Question: At what age did you start work?

Answer: Seven years of age.

Question: At whose mill?

Answer: George Addison's Bradley Mill, near Huddersfield.

Question: What were your hours of labour?

Answer: From five in the morning till eight at night.

Question: What intervals had you for refreshment?

Answer: Thirty minutes at noon.

Question: Had you no time for breakfast or refreshment in the afternoon?

Answer: No, not one minute; we had to eat our meals as we could, standing or otherwise.

Question: You had fourteen and a half hours of actual labour, at seven years of age?

Answer: Yes.

Question: Did you become very drowsy and sleepy towards the end of the day?

Answer: Yes; that began about three o'clock; and grew worse and worse, and it came to be very bad towards six and seven.

Question: How long was it before the labour took effect on your health?

Answer: Half a year.

Question: How did it affect your limbs?

Answer: When I worked about half a year a weakness fell into my knees and ankles: it continued, and it got worse and worse.

Question: How far did you live from the mill?

Answer: A good mile.

Question: Was it painful for you to move?

Answer: Yes, in the morning I could scarcely walk, and my brother and sister used, out of kindness, to take me under each arm, and run with me to the mill, and my legs dragged on the ground; in consequence of the pain I could not walk.

Question: Were you sometimes late?

Answer: Yes, and if we were five minutes too late, the overlooker would take a strap, and beat us till we were black and blue.

Question: When did your brother start working in the mill?

Answer: John was seven.

Question: Where is your brother John Working now?

Answer: He died three years ago.

Question: What age was he when he died?

Answer: Sixteen years and eight months.

Question: What was his death attributed to?

Answer: He died from a spinal affection after working long hours in the factory?

Question: Did his medical attendants state that the spinal affection was owing to his having been so over-laboured at the mill?

Answer: Yes.

Question: Have you found that, on the whole, you have been rendered ill, deformed and miserable, by the factory system?

Answer: Yes. If I had a thousand pounds, I would give them to have the use of my limbs again.


Dbq Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution had a positive and negative affect on the new world. Bringing many new inventions, factories, and transportation. The factories produced items faster and the new invention of ships and vehicles made trade move quicker and farther.

Was this all a positive affect on the world? Some would argue that it was not. In document 1 we see an excerpt from an interview with a man (Joseph Hebergam) that worked in one of the various factories. Joseph was diagnosed with an illness of the lungs and has extensive nerve damage to his legs. In the interview he states that he got this illness from all the dust and pollutions in the air from the factories, And would die with in a year.

Document 1 also provides information on the death rate of children in the factories. In a little over a year a dozen children were killed. But then in Document 2 we are told by Andrew Ure that the children are very happy in the factories, absolutely no child abuse, and as for exhaustion none to be seen. Same for Document 5, the children are well fed and educated. These are two different points of view on the factories and their workers. Making it hard to know which one to listen to.

In Document 3 The author is encouraging factories and saying the Industrial Revolution is improving the communities and lives all around the world. Making homes, clothing, food, and many other equipment faster and safer. Travel also became cheaper and easier. Factories gave women and children places to work and receive pay. The women in the factories were well dressed and clean as said in document 6.

Slum: a thickly populated, run-down, squalid part of a city, inhabited by poor people. Document 7 states that “Every town has one or more slum areas where the workers struggle through life as best they can out of sight of the more fortunate classes of society” (The conditions of the Working Class in England) Around most factories in England and.


Dbq Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was a period in which many great things came out of, but at the same time many terrible things occurred. Even though there were some unfortunate events that occurred, such as, brutal child labor, poor and unsafe working conditions, and long term physical effects from the unsafe working conditions, it all resulted in a positive outcome. The Industrial Revolution overall had a positive effect on society, though labor laws, the advances in technology, and the surplus of job opportunities.
Labor laws had a major effect on the lives of many people, especial the children. Before labor laws were enforced men, women, and children had to work extensive hours in harsh environments. Children were uneducated and did not.

Both first and second Industrial Revolution was the birthplace of many advances in technology. One of the advances of technology is the assembly line. Henry Ford was the creator of the assembly line. Before the assembly line was invented one man had to do the work of five men. This meant that the amount of products being produced was very slim. “One person [was] doing all five required steps in manufacturing a product can make one unit (Document 4)”. Now with the assembly line, and five men working on the same product, productivity increased, and instead of just having one product being produced now there are ten being produced in the same amount of time. The assembly line is a something that is still used today, and is the fastest way to large amounts of products produced. Another advance in technology was the railroad. The Railroad helped export products quicker and more efficiently. It also made it possible to visit family that lived across the country. “Going to San Francisco from New York City took six days, [when] before… the trip took month. (Document 5)”. “As the Industrial Revolution spread to the United States… factories [began to] appear (Document 3).” Factories may not seem very revolutionary because they are everywhere now, but they had to start somewhere. Factories increased productivity, and provided an easy access to goods. Factories also provided many.


The Sadler Committee Report

The new factory manufacturing of the 19th century resulted in massive changes to the working lives of Europeans. Labor conditions were far more dangerous and strenuous than the traditional agricultural labor. In 1832, the UK Parliament held hearings (under David Sadler) to investigate abuses and concerns. Some excerpts from the testimony are below.

Evidence Given Before the Sadler Committee

Joshua Drake, called in and Examined.

You say you would prefer moderate labour and lower wages are you pretty comfortable upon your present wages?
–I have no wages, but two days a week at present but when I am working at some jobs we can make a little, and at others we do very poorly.

When a child gets 3s. a week, does that go much towards its subsistence?
–No, it will not keep it as it should do.

When they got 6s. or 7s. when they were pieceners, if they reduced the hours of labor, would they not get less?
–They would get a halfpenny a day less, but I would rather have less wages and less work.

Do you receive any parish assistance?
–No.

Why do you allow your children to go to work at those places where they are ill-treated or over-worked?
–Necessity compels a man that has children to let them work.

Then you would not allow your children to go to those factories under the present system, if it was not from necessity?
–No.

Supposing there was a law passed to limit the hours of labour to eight hours a day, or something of that sort, of course you are aware that a manufacturer could not afford to pay them the same wages?
–No, I do not suppose that they would, but at the same time I would rather have it, and I believe that it would bring me into employ and if I lost 5d. a day from my children’s work, and I got half-a-crown myself, it would be better.

How would it get you into employ?
–By finding more employment at the machines, and work being more regularly spread abroad, and divided amongst the people at large. One man is now regularly turned off into the street, whilst another man is running day and night.

You mean to say, that if the manufacturers were to limit the hours of labour, they would employ more people?
–Yes.

Mr. Matthew Crabtree, called in and Examined.

What age are you?
–Twenty-two.

What is your occupation?
–A blanket manufacturer.

Have you ever been employed in a factory?
–Yes.

At what age did you first go to work in one?
–Eight.

How long did you continue in that occupation?
–Four years.

Will you state the hours of labour at the period when you first went to the factory, in ordinary times?
–From 6 in the morning to 8 at night.

Fourteen hours?
–Yes.

With what intervals for refreshment and rest?
–An hour at noon.

When trade was brisk what were your hours?
–From 5 in the morning to 9 in the evening.

Sixteen hours?
–Yes.

With what intervals at dinner?
–An hour.

How far did you live from the mill?
–About two miles.

Was there any time allowed for you to get your breakfast in the mill?
–No.

Did you take it before you left your home?
–Generally.

During those long hours of labour could you be punctual how did you awake?
–I seldom did awake spontaneously I was most generally awoke or lifted out of bed, sometimes asleep, by my parents.

Were you always in time?
–No.

What was the consequence if you had been too late?
–I was most commonly beaten.

Severely?
–Very severely, I thought.

In those mills is chastisement towards the latter part of the day going on perpetually?
–Perpetually.

So that you can hardly be in a mill without hearing constant crying?
–Never an hour, I believe.

Do you think that if the overlooker were naturally a humane person it would still be found necessary for him to beat the children, in order to keep up their attention and vigilance at the termination of those extraordinary days of labour?
–Yes the machine turns off a regular quantity of cardings, and of course, they must keep as regularly to their work the whole of the day they must keep with the machine, and therefore however humane the slubber may be, as he must keep up with the machine or be found fault with, he spurs the children to keep up also by various means but that which he commonly resorts to is to strap them when they become drowsy.

At the time when you were beaten for not keeping up with your work, were you anxious to have done it if you possibly could?
–Yes the dread of being beaten if we could not keep up with our work was a sufficient impulse to keep us to it if we could.

When you got home at night after this labour, did you feel much fatigued?
–Very much so.

Had you any time to be with your parents, and to receive instruction from them?
–No.

What did you do?
–All that we did when we got home was to get the little bit of supper that was provided for us and go to bed immediately. If the supper had not been ready directly, we should have gone to sleep while it was preparing.

Did you not, as a child, feel it a very grievous hardship to be roused so soon in the morning?
–I did.

Were the rest of the children similarly circumstanced?
–Yes, all of them but they were not all of them so far from their work as I was.

And if you had been too late you were under the apprehension of being cruelly beaten?
–I generally was beaten when I happened to be too late and when I got up in the morning the apprehension of that was so great, that I used to run, and cry all the way as I went to the mill.

Mr. John Hall, called in and Examined.

Will you describe to the Committee the position in which the children stand to piece in a worsted mill, as it may serve to explain the number and severity of those cases of distortion which occur?
–At the top to the spindle there is a fly goes across, and the child takes hold of the fly by the ball of his left hand, and he throws the left shoulder up and the right knee inward he has the thread to get with the right hand, and he has to stoop his head down to see what he is doing they throw the right knee inward in that way, and all the children I have seen, that bend in the right knee. I knew a family, the whole of whom were bent outwards as a family complaint, and one of those boys was sent to a worsted-mill, and first he became straight in his right knee, and then he became crooked in it the other way.

Elizabeth Bentley, called in and Examined.

What age are you?
–Twenty-three.

Where do you live?
–At Leeds.

What time did you begin to work at a factory?
–When I was six years old.

At whose factory did you work?
–Mr. Busk’s.

What kind of mill is it?
–Flax-mill.

What was your business in that mill?
–I was a little doffer.

What were your hours of labour in that mill?
–From 5 in the morning till 9 at night, when they were thronged.

For how long a time together have you worked that excessive length of time?
–For about half a year.

What were your usual hours when you were not so thronged?
–From 6 in the morning till 7 at night.

What time was allowed for your meals?
–Forty minutes at noon.

Had you any time to get your breakfast or drinking?
–No, we got it as we could.

And when your work was bad, you had hardly any time to eat it at all?
–No we were obliged to leave it or take it home, and when we did not take it, the overlooker took it, and gave it to his pigs.

Do you consider doffing a laborious employment?
–Yes.

Explain what it is you had to do?
–When the frames are full, they have to stop the frames, and take the flyers off, and take the full bobbins off, and carry them to the roller and then put empty ones on, and set the frame going again.

Does that keep you constantly on your feet?
–Yes, there are so many frames, and they run so quick.

Your labour is very excessive?
–Yes you have not time for any thing.

Suppose you flagged a little, or were too late, what would they do?
–Strap us.

Are they in the habit of strapping those who are last in doffing?
–Yes.

Constantly?
–Yes.

Girls as well as boys?
–Yes.

Have you ever been strapped?
–Yes.

Severely?
–Yes.

Could you eat your food well in that factory?
–No, indeed I had not much to eat, and the little I had I could not eat it, my appetite was so poor, and being covered with dust and it was no use to take it home, I could not eat it, and the overlooker took it, and gave it to the pigs.

You are speaking of the breakfast?
–Yes.

How far had you to go for dinner?
–We could not go home to dinner.

Where did you dine?
–In the mill.

Did you live far from the mill?
–Yes, two miles.

Had you a clock?
–No, we had not.

Supposing you had not been in time enough in the morning at these mills, what would have been the consequence?
–We should have been quartered.

What do you mean by that?
–If we were a quarter of an hour too late, they would take off half an hour we only got a penny an hour, and they would take a halfpenny more.

The fine was much more considerable than the loss of time?
–Yes.

Were you also beaten for being too late?
–No, I was never beaten myself, I have seen the boys beaten for being too late.

Were you generally there in time?
–Yes my mother had been up at 4 o’clock in the morning, and at 2 o’clock in the morning the colliers used to go to their work about 3 or 4 o’clock, and when she heard them stirring she has got up out of her warm bed, and gone out and asked them the time and I have sometimes been at Hunslet Car at 2 o’clock in the morning, when it was streaming down with rain, and we have had to stay until the mill was opened.

Peter Smart, called in and Examined.

You say you were locked up night and day?
–Yes.

Do the children ever attempt to run away?
–Very often.

Were they pusued and brought back again?
–Yes, the overseer pursued them, and brought them back.

Did you ever attempt to run away?
–Yes, I ran away twice.

And you were brought back?
–Yes and I was sent up to the master’s loft, and thrashed with a whip for running away.

Were you bound to this man?
–Yes, for six years.

By whom were you bound?
–My mother got 15s. for the six years.

Do you know whether the children were, in point of fact, compelled to stop during the whole time for which they were engaged?
–Yes, they were.

By law?
–I cannot say by law but they were compelled by the master I never saw any law used there but the law of their own hands.

To what mill did you next go?
–To Mr. Webster’s, at Battus Den, within eleven miles of Dundee.

In what situation did you act there?
–I acted as overseer.

At 17 years of age?
–Yes.

Did you inflict the same punishment that you yourself had experienced?
–I went as an overseer not as a slave, but as a slave-driver.

What were the hours of labour in that mill?
–My master told me that I had to produce a certain quantity of yarn the hours were at that time fourteen I said that I was not able to produce the quantity of yarn that was required I told him if he took the timepiece out of the mill I would produce that quantity, and after that time I found no difficulty in producing the quantity.

How long have you worked per day in order to produce the quantity your master required?
–I have wrought nineteen hours.

Was this a water-mill?
–Yes, water and steam both.

To what time have you worked?
–I have seen the mill going till it was past 12 o’clock on the Saturday night.

So that the mill was still working on the Sabbath morning?
–Yes.

Were the workmen paid by the piece, or by the day?
–No, all had stated wages.

Did not that almost compel you to use great severity to the hands then under you?
–Yes I was compelled often to beat them, in order to get them to attend to their work, from their being over-wrought.

Were not the children exceedingly fatigued at that time?
–Yes, exceedingly fatigued.

Were the children bound in the same way in that mill?
–No they were bound from one year’s end to another, for twelve months.

Did you keep the hands locked up in the same way in that mill?
–Yes, we locked up the mill but we did not lock the bothy.

Did you find that the children were unable to pursue their labour properly to that extent?
–Yes they have been brought to that condition, that I have gone and fetched up the doctor to them, to see what was the matter with them, and to know whether they were able to rise or not able to rise they were not at all able to rise we have had great difficulty in getting them up.

When that was the case, how long have they been in bed, generally speaking?
–Perhaps not above four or five hours in their beds.

Source: Parliamentary Papers, 1831-1832, vol. XV. pp. 44, 95-97, 115, 195, 197, 339, 341-342, reprinted in Jonathan F. Scott and Alexander Baltzly, eds., Readings in European History Since 1814 (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1930.


Industrial Revolution DBQ Essay

The Industrial Revolution made a huge impact on the people back in the 1700’s and 1800’s. This time period set the pace for products and food to be made easier than before, safer than before, and also more efficient than before. All the inventions that came about during this time period would greatly influence how things are made today. With the industrial revolution there came a lot of job opportunities for both men and more importantly women. The argument now is if the industrial revolution led to a sexual revolution. Historians such as Edward Shorter, who believes that new employment opportunities for unmarried women led to an increase in freedom sexually and caused a rise in illegitimacy rate. Other historians, Till, Scott, and Cohen disagreed with Shorter and argued that the unmarried women of that time period worked to put food on the table and not to gain personal freedom. Their opinions on the rise.

One of the reasons for this sexual revolution, according to Shorter, is egoism. Egoism is self-interest and Shorter said that the system of the free-market place would only succeed if the buyers and sellers acted in ways that would only promote themselves. Shorter’s description of the “teeter-totter” relationship is when one has a balance between self-interest and obligation to the community. Earlier in the industrial revolution the “teeter-totter” went towards family obligation, but towards the end it “tottered” towards the self-interest end. He also believed that because individualization occurred that sexual experimentation came along as well. Men and women in the lower class had no obligations therefore, they experimented with each other, leading to the rise of illegitimacy. “Look out for number one attitude,” is another phrase Shorter used to describe women’s role as going from powerlessness and dependency to full.


2-4: Consequences Part 2

Historical Context: The Industrial Revolution which began in England in the late 1700’s had a wide range of positive and negative effects on the economic and social life of the people of England. These results have been interpreted from a variety of perspectives—the factory workers, the factory owners, the government, and others who observed the conditions in industrial cities at the time.

Analyze the following documents that describe the effects of the Industrial Revolution and answer the 8 questions that follow.

Document 1: The following is an excerpt from William Cooper’s testimony before the Sadler Committee in 1832.

Cooper: I am eight and twenty.

Sadler: When did you first begin to work in mills?

Cooper: When I was ten years of age.

Sadler: What were your usual hours of working?

Cooper: We began at five in the morning and stopped at nine in the night.

Sadler: What time did you have for meals?

Cooper: We had just one period of forty minutes in the sixteen hours. That was at noon.

Sadler: What means were taken to keep you awake and attentive?

Cooper: At times we were frequently strapped.

Sadler: When your hours were so long, did you have any time to attend a day school?

Cooper: We had no time to go today school.

Sadler: Can you read and write?

Cooper: I can read, but I cannot write.

Questions:Does this testimony describe positive or negative effects of the Industrial Revolution? Describe the effects of industrialization on children working in the factory .

Document 2:Excerpt from the testimony of Joseph Hebergam to the Sadler Committee.

Sadler: What is the nature of your illness?

Hebergam: I have damaged lungs. My leg muscles do not function properly and will not support the weight of my bones.

Sadler: A doctor has told you that you will die within the year, is that correct?

Hebergam: I have been so told.

Sadler: Did he tell you the cause of your illness?

Habergam: He told me that it was caused by the dust in the factories and from overwork and insufficient diet.

Sadler: To what was his (your brother’s) death attributed?

Hebergam: He was cut by a machine and he died of infection.

Sadler: Do you know of any other children who died at the Mill?

Hebergam: There were about a dozen died during the two years and a half that I was there. At the Mill where I worked last, a boy was caught in a machine and had both his thigh bones broke and from his knee to his hip the flesh was ripped up the same as it had been cut by a knife. His hand was bruised, his eyes were nearly torn out and his arms were broken. His sister, who ran to pull him off, had both her arms broke and her head bruised. The boy died. I do not know if the girl is dead, but she was not expected to live.

Sadler: Did the accident occur because the shaft was not covered?

Questions:Does this testimony describe positive or negative effects of the Industrial Revolution? What effect did the working conditions have on the workers?

Document3: This excerpt is from The Philosophy of Manufacturers by Andrew Ure, 1835.

I have visited many factories, both in Manchester and in the surrounding districts, and I never saw a single instance of corporal chastisement [beating] inflicted on a child. They seemed to be always cheerful and alert, taking pleasure in the light play of their muscles…. As to exhaustion,they showed no trace of it on emerging from the mill in the evening for they began to skip about….It is moreover my firm conviction [opinion] that children would thrive better when employed in our modern factories, than if left at home in apartments too often ill-aired, damp, and cold.

Question:How does Andrew Ure describe the conditions in factories he visited?

Document 4: This excerpt is from The Working Man’s Companion subtitled The Results of Machinery, Namely Cheap Production and Increased Employment. It was published in 1831.

You are surrounded, as we have constantly shown you throughout this book, with an infinite number of comforts and conveniences which had no existence two or three centuries ago and those comforts are not used only by a few, but are within the reach of almost all men. Everyday is adding something to your comforts. Our houses are better built, your clothes are cheaper, you have an infinite number of domestic utensils. You can travel cheaply from place to place, and not only travel at less expense, but travel ten times quicker than two hundred years ago.

Question: According to this author, were the effects of the Industrial Revolution positive or negative? Cite three details from the excerpt to support your answer.

Document 5: This description is from a pamphlet published in 1797 by the Society for Bettering the Condition and Increasing the Comforts of the Poor.

The village contains about 1500 inhabitants, of whom all are capable of work are employed in and about the mills. Of these there are 500 children who are entirely fed, clothed, and educated by Mr.Dale. The others live with their parents in the village and have a weekly allowance for their work. The healthy appearance of these children has frequently attracted the attention of the traveler. Special regulations, adopted by Mr.Dale, have made this factory very different from the others in this kingdom. Out of the nearly 3000 children employed in the mills from 1785 to 1797, only fourteen have died.

Question: What benefits were provided to people of this village?

Document 6: This except, from Manchester in 1844,was written by Leon Faucher (Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.,1969) after his visit to English factory towns.

The little town of Hyde was at the beginning of the century, a little hamlet of only 800 people, on the summit of a barren hill, the soil of which did not yield sufficient food for the inhabitants. The brothers Ashton have peopled and enriched this desert….Mr. T. Ashton employs 1500 work people [in his factories]. The young women are well and decently clothed…. The houses inhabited by the work people form long and large streets. Mr. Ashton has built 300 of them, which he lets [rents] for… 75 cents per week….Everywhere is to be observed a cleanliness which indicates order and comfort.

Question: What did Leon Faucher observe when he visited Hyde?

Document 7: This excerpt from The Conditions of the Working Class in England was written by Friedrich Engels after he visited an English industrial city in 1844.

Every great town has one or more slum areas where the workers struggle through life as best they can out of sight of the more fortunate classes of society. The slums… are generally unplanned wildernesses of one-or two-storied houses. Wherever possible these have cellars which are also used as dwellings. The streets are usually unpaved, full of holes, filthy and strewn with refuse. Since they have neither gutters nor drains, the refuse accumulates in stagnant, stinking puddles. The view of Manchester is quite typical. The main river is narrow, coal-black and full of stinking filth and rubbish which it deposits on its bank…. One walks along a very rough path on the river bank to reach a chaotic group of little, one -story,one- room cabins…. In front of the doors, filth and garbage abounded….

Questions: What did Engels observe as he visited an English industrial city? Why did Engels focus on the negative results of industrialization?

Document 8: This table shows British Iron Production (1740-1900).

British Iron Production(1740-1900)
1740 17,350 tons
1796 125,079 tons
1839 1,248,781 tons
1854 3,100,000 tons
1900 9,000,000 tons

Question: Describe British iron production between 1740- 1900. Is this a positive or negative effect of the Industrial Revolution? Explain.

ENRICHMENT SET

Now that you have analyzed the documents answer the prompt below by writing a thesis statement and outline of body paragraphs. Your Body Paragraphs should include your major point and how the documents will support your position. Example: Document A is an interview conducted to investigate child labor. This is evidence of…

PROMPT: How did the Industrial Revolution impact the life of the average worker in Europe?


Essay On Alexander Hamilton's Vision Of Industrialized America

During the early 1800’s the United States was transforming into Alexander Hamilton’s vision of an industrialized America. In the book Sam Patch, The Famous Jumper it shows a good illustration of how America operated during the Early Republic Period from 1800-1837. This shift in America brought uproar among the people and it made America dependent on the working of manufactories. The conditions in factories were intolerable and not safe at all for any workers. The effects of industrialization in America made a great impact on the institutions of freedom and equality not allowing workers to be reasonable with their employer and causing a hardship on working individuals.&hellip


Negative Effects Of The Industrial Revolution

During the early 1800’s, Industrialization began in Europe and resulted in the transformation of human life around the world through cultural, social and economic changes. Progress generated by the Industrial Revolution resulted in advancements such as faster production of goods, modern medicine and improved transportation. Railroad systems were put in place and allowed transactions and trading to be made faster than ever due to James Watt’s improvements to the Steam Engine. Communication tools like


Joseph

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Joseph, in the Old Testament, son of the patriarch Jacob and his wife Rachel. As Jacob’s name became synonymous with all Israel, so that of Joseph was eventually equated with all the tribes that made up the northern kingdom. According to tradition, his bones were buried at Shechem, oldest of the northern shrines (Joshua 24:32). His story is told in Genesis (37–50).

Joseph, most beloved of Jacob’s sons, is hated by his envious brothers. Angry and jealous of Jacob’s gift to Joseph, a resplendent “coat of many colours,” the brothers seize him and sell him to a party of Ishmaelites, or Midianites, who carry him to Egypt. There Joseph eventually gains the favour of the pharaoh of Egypt by his interpretation of a dream and obtains a high place in the pharaoh’s kingdom. His acquisition of grain supplies enables Egypt to withstand a famine. Driven by the same famine, his brothers journey from Canaan to Egypt to obtain food. They prostrate themselves before Joseph but do not recognize him. After Joseph achieves a reconciliation with his brothers, he invites Jacob’s whole household to come to Goshen in Egypt, where a settlement is provided for the family and their flocks. His brothers’ sale of Joseph into slavery thus proves providential in the end, since it protected the family from famine. The family’s descendants grew and multiplied into the Hebrews, who would eventually depart from Egypt for Israel.

The story of Joseph, often called a novella, is a carefully wrought piece of literary craftsmanship. Though it features the personality of Joseph, it is introduced (Genesis 37:2) as the “history of the family of Jacob.” Authorities agree that parts of the story show dependence upon the ancient Egyptian “Tale of Two Brothers,” but in characteristically Hebraic fashion, the narrator in Genesis has ignored the mythical and magical motifs in the Egyptian tale, and the focus of the outcome is placed on its meaning for the whole house of Israel.

The purpose of the story is to relate the preservation of Israel. Its people survive despite their own foolishness and wickedness, indeed, ironically, in part because of these. The story is told as a testimony to the operation of divine providence: “. . . you meant evil against me but God meant it for good . . .” (Genesis 50:20) sums up its moral. But while the Lord had turned the provocations of the spoiled son and the jealousy and deceptions of his brothers to good account, he had realized his end through the faithfulness of Joseph, true to Israel’s ideals under all circumstances and ever mindful of his obligations to his people. Joseph has served throughout the ages as the model for the “court Jew,” the Israelite in a position of power who acts to rescue and help his people.


The Industrial Revolution A Blessing to the Common Man

Since the dawn of creation all goods were constructed by hand. It was a drastic shift from simple hand tools to power machinery that changed the world forever. This radical change came to be known as the Industrial Revolution?for it had an astounding affect on the economic, political, and social spheres of the nineteenth century. Before the eighteenth century England was primarily an agrarian society. Though some were wealthy landholders, the majority of Englishmen were impoverished. For the most part life revolved around the agricultural process of planting, cultivating, harvesting, and processing the harvest. Despite the inherent difficulties of this lifestyle, this routine seldom changed between generations and provided a sense of stability. Once the Enclosure Act was passed the small landowners were forced to give up their land. With Enclosure, all land owners had to pay a flat tax on their land and were required to have their land fenced and surveyed. Since only large landowners were able to afford the expenses most of the people migrated to the cities were the conditions were disastrous. Before the Industrial Revolution, rural workers constantly lived with the fear of crop failure. ?If there was a food shortage, they were the first to suffer and in famine they were the first to die? (Tierney 197).

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Yet, death from starvation was uncommon. Instead malnutrition imposed from a balanced diet was widespread. This of course led to the inability of peasants to fight diseases, and thus epidemics ensued. The Industrial Revolution was the mediator of the problems in the cities. At the start of the revolutions, 1790 to 1815, prices and especially wages grew steeply. Due to the Seven Year?s War with France the prices steadily rose, but to counter it the wages also rose. After the war with France ended, the prices went back down very sharply while the wages seemingly remained constant. ?But before the end of the war (as Professor Silberling has shown) industrial wages in England caught up with retail prices, and in the ?twenties the gain was pronounced? (254).

The Essay on Industrial Revolution 8

Industrial Revolution is regarded as a very important period in human development which occurred in the period towards the end of the 18th century stretching to the 19th century. Industrial revolution is said to have begun in the United Kingdom and later spread to other parts of the world including the rest of Europe, North America amongst other parts of the world. During this period there were .

For the bulk of the Industrial Revolution, wages were higher than the prices. Higher wages left ?the poor-rate is very decidedly lower in the manufacturing than in the agricultural districts? (244).

It seems that it was better to work in factories rather than in the country and live as a peasant.

The increase in wages led to higher standard of living for the rural workers. The increase in wages allowed people to accumulate money and spent the money on other things other than necessities. Even though money people spent their money on necessities, the necessities were cheaper due to the revolution. The Industrial Revolution brought along a rise in general commodities. ??the return cargoes did not consist, in the main, of wines and silks, but of sugar, grain, coffee, and tea for the people at large? (254).

These new imports led to lower prices in all sorts of necessities, from food, shelter, and clothing. The textile industry was able to produce cheaper clothing for the working class of the nation. Not only was it cheaper but it was easier to clean and lasted longer. Since there was more money left over the rural workers were now able to afford meat and other healthy items, which led to a longer life. As people were becoming rich from these business ventures, the average life span increased as a result of man?s reliance on machines. ?Reduced manorial labor through machinery that performed miracles of strength, speed, and precision? accounted for the improved lifestyle. Eventually, the higher wages led to a longer, happier life and a higher standard of living. It is obvious that over the course of the Industrial Revolution, death rates in England decreased which in turn caused a population increase. Even though, the mortality rate is still greater in the cities rather than in the country, there is now only a slight difference between them. ?There is the best reason to believe that the annual mortality of Manchester, about the middle of the last century, was one in twenty-eight. It is now reckoned at forty-five? (245).

The Essay on Industrial Revolution Factories Document Children

Documents that i will use to evaluate the positive and negative effects of the Industrial Revolution. Document #1: Excerpt from William Coopers testimony before the Sadler committee in 1832. Document #2: Excerpt from the testimony of Joseph Hebergam to the Sadler Committee. Document #3: Excerpt from "The Philosophy of Manufactures" by Andrew Ure, 1835. Document #5: Excerpt from a pamphlet .

Due to the increase in life expectancy, at about double the amount, more people were able to enjoy life. It could be said that ?people live longer because they are better fed, better lodged, better clothed, and better attended in sickness, and that these improvements are owing to that increase of national wealth which the manufacturing system has produced? (245).

With out the Industrial Revolution most of the people would die at an early age and progress would have slowed down. The decrease in mortality rates point to an increase in the living standards in the general population.

Many would argue that revolution was a curse due to the treatment of children during the time, but this was just a scapegoat. ?The children of the poor were regarded as workers long before the Industrial Revolution? (245).

The poor treatment of children did not get any worse than it was in the eighteenth century. The Industrial Revolution just caused the situation of the children to be noticeable. Before the revolution the ill-treatment of children was spread all over the world, but the revolution caused people to examine the situation. With out the Industrial Revolution there may still be the poor treatment of kids. The revolution allowed the improvement in child labor laws. For example, the Factory Act of 1833 outlawed the employment of children under 9 in textile mills, it also put a limit of hours worked for age groups. Other similar laws were also passed, like the Mines Act, which prohibited boys under 10 and all girls from working underground, and the Ten Hours Act, forbade all females and males under 18 to 10 hours a day. The conditions in the factories were not great but not extremely bad. ??the medical gentleman who attends our people, that in the course of his practice, he finds less disease existing with the people employed in the works, than in the general population of the surrounding country? (236).

The Essay on Industrial Revolution Children Changed Child

What did I learn? Industrial Revolution In the previous class, we learned the changes of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution had changed literally everything. Lives changed, roles changed, education changed, homes changed, health changed, romance changed everything had changed. The elements of the home changed in quite a few ways. The home was always filled with the people that .

This showed that the children were better off in the workhouses than in the country.

Overall, the Industrial Revolution was a blessing in its own way. The Enclosure Act led to the Industrial Revolution. The rural workers situation was so bad before the revolution. There was fear of death, either by starvation or disease. As soon as the revolution came that fear disappeared. The common man was now getting higher wages, which in turn led to a higher living standard. The wages also allowed for a healthier diet and life, which caused the mortality rate to decrease and life expectancy to increase. The biggest argument against the Industrial Revolution is the treatment of children at the time. This situation can not be blamed on the revolution since the situation was always there but never realized. The Industrial Revolution caused many changes, not for the worse but for the better.

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