8 April 1940

8 April 1940

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8 April 1940

April 1940


War at Sea

German submarine U-1 lost with all hands after hitting a mine off Terschelling

HMS Glowworm sunk after ramming the German cruiser Hipper


Royal Navy lays mines off Narvik

8 April 1940 - History

April 8, 1940 - The US Navy contracts with Grumman for two prototypes of the XTBF-1, later named “Avenger,” a mid-wing monoplane that would become the Navy’s standard carrier torpedo bomber of World War II.

The XTBF-1
The Douglas' TBD Devastator, the U.S. Navy's main torpedo bomber introduced in 1935, was obsolete by 1939. Bids were accepted from several companies, but Grumman's TBF design was selected as the replacement for the TBD and in April 1940 two prototypes were ordered by the Navy. Designed by Leroy Grumman, the first prototype was called the XTBF-1. It was first flown on August 7, 1941. Although one of the first two prototypes crashed near Brentwood, New York, rapid production continued. More via the Naval Aviation Museum

TBF Avenger in WWII
On the afternoon of 7 December 1941, Grumman held a ceremony to open a new manufacturing plant and display the new TBF to the public. Coincidentally, on that day, the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked Pearl Harbor, as Grumman soon found out. After the ceremony was over, the plant was quickly sealed off to guard against possible sabotage. By early June 1942, a shipment of more than 100 aircraft was sent to the Navy, arriving only a few hours after the three carriers quickly departed from Pearl Harbor, so most of them were too late to participate in the pivotal Battle of Midway. Six TBF-1s were present on Midway Island – as part of VT-8 (Torpedo Squadron 8) – while the rest of the squadron flew Devastators from the aircraft carrier Hornet. Both types of torpedo bombers suffered heavy casualties. Out of the six Avengers, five were shot down and the other returned heavily damaged with one of its gunners killed, and the other gunner and the pilot injured. Nonetheless, the US torpedo bombers were credited with drawing away the Japanese combat air patrols so the American dive bombers could successfully hit the Japanese carriers. More about the Avenger via PearlHarbor.org

Leroy R. Grumman
Leroy Randle Grumman (January 4, 1895 – October 4, 1982) was an American aeronautical engineer, test pilot, and industrialist. In 1929, he co-founded Grumman Aeronautical Engineering Co., later renamed Grumman Aerospace Corporation, and now part of Northrop Grumman. More about Leroy Grumman

Who Had an A-File Below 8 Million?

INS opened A-Files below 8 million for:

• All immigrants arriving between April 1 1944 and May 1, 1951

• Reopened cases of immigrants already in the country and registered through the Alien Registration Program and

• Other purposes (e.g., criminal investigations).

INS created an A-File numbered below 8 million for all immigrants admitted to the United States between April 1, 1944 and May 1, 1951. Between April 1, 1944 and March 31, 1956, however, INS moved all agency records for a new citizen into his or her consolidated C-File and the A-File ceased to exist. Accordingly, immigrants who naturalized prior to April 1, 1956, will only have a consolidated C-File.

Immigrants issued an Alien Registration Number through the Alien Registration Program will have an A-Number below 8 million and an Alien Registration Form ("AR-2") on microfilm. However, these immigrants will only have an A-File if their case re-opened after April 1, 1944. INS reopened cases when an immigrant filed any kind of application (e.g., to replace a document, obtain a border crossing card, or petition for an immigrant relative).

INS also created A-Files without any action taken by the immigrant. For example, an A-File would be started if INS initiated a law enforcement action against or involving an immigrant.

On This Day in History, 20 июнь

Bonn had been the capital of West Germany until the country's reunification in 1990. The “Hauptstadtbeschluss” (capital decision) stipulated that the seat of government and the parliament also be moved to the “new” capital Berlin.

1975 The film Jaws is premiered

Steven Spielberg's thriller about a rogue great white shark terrorizing a summer resort town is often regarded as one of the greatest films of all time.

1963 The “Red Telephone” is instituted

The hotline between the U.S. and the Soviet Union was established following Cuban Missile Crisis. Contrary to popular belief, communications between the two superpowers occurred via teletype or fax, and today, via email.

1942 Kazimierz Piechowski and three others escape from Auschwitz concentration camp

In a feat of “exceptional courage and gallantry”, as stated by the Polish author Kazimierz Smoleń, the four prisoners left via the front gate in a stolen SS staff car, dressed as SS officers. During World War II, the Nazi regime murdered 1.1 million people in Auschwitz. Only 144 are known to have escaped.

1837 Victoria becomes Queen of the United Kingdom

During the 64 years of her regency, the United Kingdom became one of the world's most potent powers. The British Empire soon encompassed large parts of the planet. Queen Victoria died in 1901.

Texas Register

Published weekly, the Texas Register records state agency rule making and review actions, governor's appointments, attorney general opinions, requests for proposals, and other miscellaneous documents. This archive, established through a partnership with the Office of the Texas Secretary of State, Texas Register Section, provides free access to all issues of the Texas Register from Volume 1, No. 1 (January 6, 1976). to the present.

About the Collection

The University of North Texas Libraries (UNTL) and the Office of the Texas Secretary of State - Texas Register, in a partnership arrangement, established this collection to insure permanent storage and public access to the non-current electronic files of the Texas state government publication, the Texas Register. The most current issue of the Texas Register is first posted on the Texas Register Web site, where they maintain access to the most current six (6) months' issues of the Texas Register. The University of North Texas Libraries provides free access to all issues of the Texas Register beginning with Volume 1, No. 1 (January 6, 1976) up to within a week of the most currently released issue.

Discussions concerning access to the back electronic issues of the Texas Register were initiated between UNT and the Texas Register Office in the summer of 1999, and in the spring of 2000, a memorandum of understanding was signed outlining the responsibilities of each partner. The transfer of more than twenty-four thousand compressed files, (4753 text and 19,549 HTML files together with 297 pdf files), began in the summer of 2000, and UNTL then launched the process of uncompressing, organizing, and verifying all files. Several enhancements support access to the files, including the installation of a search engine, search tips page, information about the content of the Texas Register, and access to specific issues from browse pages.

In 2009 work began to migrate the electronic collection to The Portal to Texas History in an effort to provide greater access and preservation services to the collection. After the digital files were moved to their new home, the UNT Libraries began to digitize the non-electronic issues of the Texas Register to provide a complete run of the publication to users of The Portal to Texas History. As of September 2012, all issues of the Texas Register have been digitized and are available to users via the Portal.

Dodd-Frank Act and Partial Repeal

After the Great Recession, President Obama signed the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in 2010. It is an extremely large piece of legislation that resulted in the creation of new government agencies to oversee different aspects of the act, and hence, the entire financial system in the U.S. The act impacted several areas, including "consumer protection, trading restrictions, credit ratings, financial products, corporate governance, and transparency."

Dodd-Frank impacted the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 more than it did the Investment Company Act of 1940, however, hedge funds have been impacted by Dodd-Frank.

Under the Investment Company Act, hedge funds were not required to register. This gave hedge funds a significant amount of carte blanche in their trading activities. Dodd-Frank established new rules for hedge funds and private equity funds to register with the SEC and abide by certain disclosure requirements based on their size.

A visual guide to 75 years of major refugee crises around the world

The conflict in Syria has now displaced 12 million people, creating the largest wave of refugees to hit Europe since World War II . But in the last half century, other events around the world have pushed even larger numbers of people to flee war and persecution. Here's a brief guide to the major refugee events in recent history &mdash mouse over each bubble to see what it represents.

These incidents
displaced at least

World War II saw the greatest displacement of people from their homes in the 20th century, with forced laborers dwelling in the lands of the German Reich, millions of ethnic Germans expelled from the Soviet Union, and millions more fleeing the increasingly harsh regime of Joseph Stalin. In 1950, the Allies set up the United Nations High Commission on Refugees, which has since sought to provide relief for people fleeing conflict.

End of the colonial era and post-Cold War

These incidents
displaced at least

Decolonization movements swept over Asia and Africa in the 1950s and '60s, starting with the Indian subcontinent, where 14 million people were displaced by the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947. Wars of independence and the civil conflict that followed sent millions flooding out of Algeria , Congo , Angola, Nigeria and others into neighboring countries, and newly minted military regimes often uprooted ethnic communities even after peace was restored.

During the 1970s and '80s, the Cold War’s proxy battles displaced millions of people from Afghanistan and between countries in the Horn of Africa. With the declining power of the Soviet Union, many ethnic and nationalist communities in Eastern Europe began to agitate for self-determination, resulting in mass movements between Armenia and Azerbaijan and within Georgia and Tajikistan . After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, millions of ethnic Russians flowed into Russia from the newly independent states.

Instability in the Middle East

These incidents
displaced at least

Global displacement levels declined to a historic low in 2005, but started escalating again because of a series of conflicts, including the U.S. invasion of Iraq . By mid-2015, the total number of refugees and internally displaced people had climbed to an all-time high of more than 60 million people, the UNHCR estimates &mdash reflecting both the masses of people newly uprooted from war-torn regions of Syria and South Sudan , as well as those displaced years ago from places like Pakistan and Afghanistan who still haven't been able to return home.

Corrections: An earlier version of the graphic indicated that the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan happened in 1990. It happened in 1979, displacing a total of 6.3 million people in 1990. An earlier version of the graphic indicated that the Soviet suppression of a Hungarian uprising displaced Hungarians to Australia. The event displaced Hungarians to Austria. An earlier version of the graphic indicated the incorrect number of people that were displaced in the U.S. invasion of Iraq. The correct number is 1.9 million.

Source: UNHCR. Given the lack of systematic data collection before the year 2000, population numbers &mdash drawn from UNHCR's narrative history of refugees in the 20th century &mdash are approximate and not comprehensive. Numbers since the year 2000 reflect point-in-time estimates, rather than a historical accounting of which events caused what amount of displacement. Additional research contributed by Richard Johnson.


On April 8, 1903, the newly formed Weyerhaeuser Timber Company, with offices in Tacoma, opens its first sawmill in Washington state in Everett, beginning a Weyerhaeuser presence in the city that will last until 1992. The mill is located on Port Gardner Bay, on the sites of the Bell-Nelson mill and adjoining Everett Shipbuilding Company.

A Profitable Partnership

The person most responsible for making Everett a mill town was James J. Hill (1838-1916), president of the Great Northern Railway and majority owner of the Northern Pacific. In 1899 he purchased the remaining holdings of the failed Everett Land Company, changing its name to the Everett Improvement Company and hiring city planner John McChesney (d. 1922) to run it. McChesney had experience as a banker, former mayor of Aberdeen, South Dakota, and head of a syndicate that developed Chattanooga, Tennessee.

Offering sites at bargain prices, the Improvement Company by 1910 had added large and small lumber and shingle mills, a brewery, a flour mill, a shoe factory, a creamery, a stove works, a granary, an additional iron works, and three shipbuilding plants. It also built the Everett Theater and a bank.

Hill closed a deal with timberman Frederick Weyerhaeuser (1834-1914), who sought to expand his timber holdings by purchasing land in the Pacific Northwest. On January 3, 1900, Hill sold 900,000 acres of Northern Pacific land in Washington to Weyerhaeuser, who then organized the Weyerhaeuser Timber Company, with himself as president.

Healing Wounds

In August 1902, Hill spoke to Everett businessmen, offering new promises. In the 1890s, Hill's promise of bringing the Great Northern Railway to Everett persuaded wealthy capitalists to invest in the new city. The railroad did arrive in 1893, but by that time Seattle and Tacoma already had rail service and the associated economic head start. Following a national recession in 1893, many wealthy investors, including John D. Rockefeller (1939-1937) and partners, looked for better prospects, packed their bags and left town, leaving Everett to deal with the wreckage.

The national economy was good in 1902 and Everett businessmen were open to Hill's new promises. These included what Hill described as a "commodious depot" with added track and two large Weyerhaeuser mills, the latter an investment of $1 million that was expected to employ 800 men and increase city population to 8,000 ("Hill is Alright . ").

Hill's plan was to encourage new industries that would build the Everett economy by bringing local products to East Coast and Asian markets. In Hill's words: "Look what Everett has done in the last two years, doubled its population and increased wonderfully in wealth and new industries. Your people are employed and your mills are running and permanent and substantial prosperity is with you . Our ships will not pay us but they will bring us freight to fill our empty eastbound cars, and there we will make a profit" ("Hill is Alright . ").

A Modern Experimental Mill

On December 29, 1901, the Weyerhaeuser syndicate announced it had purchased, at a price of $280,000, the Bell-Nelson Mill on Port Gardner Bay, the adjoining Everett Shipbuilding Company, and a Bell-Nelson logging camp at Maple Valley. Owners James Bell and Oscar Nelson closed the mill for two weeks to begin refurbishing the facility, but it was soon decided that a new, modern facility would be built to replace it. Contractors determined that the existing shipbuilding foundation could be used and incorporated. Phasing out its operations at the site, the Everett Shipyards launched its last boat, the steamer Albion, in 1902.

A Longtime Industry for Everett

The first mill established a Weyerhaeuser presence in Everett that lasted for decades: Mill A (1903-1980) was a showcase, experimental mill on Port Gardner Bay Mill B (1915-1979) was the first electric mill in the U.S. and supplier to East Coast markets, located on the Snohomish River at the northern tip of Everett Mill C (1923-1977) was a hemlock plant lying east of Mill B the Kraft Pulp Mill (1953-1992) and Mill E (1971-1985) were on the Snohomish River, east of Mill B.

An elegant office building that was built at Mill A to showcase its products in 1923 currently [2021] is owned by the Port of Everett and is located at the Port's Boxcar Park. Following the closure of its last mill, Weyerhaeuser stayed in Everett years longer doing environmental cleanup at its plant sites.

Snohomish County Community Heritage Project

Frederick Weyerhaeuser (1834-1914)

James J. Hill (1838-1916), ca. 1900

Courtesy Wikimedia Commons

"Mills by Moonlight," Weyerhaeuser Mill B, ca. 1938

Photo by Everett Murray, Courtesy Everett Public Library (0531)

Weyerhaeuser Mill A digesters, 1935

Photo by Everett Murray, Courtesy Everett Public Library

Company executives and Everett police officers at Weyerhaeuser Building, Mill B, Everett, early 1940s

Photo by Faye Morrison, Courtesy Everett Public Library (Weyerhaeuser collection)

The 8 Worst Floods In American History

The plains area has become exhausted with the flash flooding in Texas and Oklahoma, with the storms causing more than 10 deaths throughout the weekend. Flash flooding kills more than 140 people per year, according to the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office. In the United States, they kill more individuals each year than large hail, tornadoes, and damaging straight-line winds combined. The serious situation brings to mind other extremely dire floods in American history.

The largest floods in American history have created a death toll measured by scores or even hundreds. In addition, they also cause about $6 billion in damages per year in this country and $3 trillion worldwide, according to National Geographic. However, some individual floods have racked up property costs in the billions by themselves.

Flash floods begin hours or minutes after rainfall hits and then leave quickly, creating incredibly dangerous situations. Areas with large rivers nearby are most dangerous for flooding. For instance, the Mississippi River has caused some of the most deadly flooding in the country, but any place where it rains can be vulnerable. Dams and new housing developments can also cause flooding, along with mountainous or coastal regions. All of these situations have seen various devastating floods throughout American history. The eight worst American floods are listed here from least to most damaging.

Mississippi River Flood Of 1993

This flood lasted from May to October and caused $15 billion in damages, making it the second costliest American flood on record. The water stayed in flood stage in St. Louis for 81 consecutive days, and 50 people died, according to Time.

Big Thompson Canyon Flood Of 1976

This Colorado flash flood only lasted one day, July 31, 1976, and left 144 dead, according to The Denver Post, and cost $35.5 million in damages. The mountainous region makes flash flooding particularly impactful.

Rapid City Flood Of 1972

South Dakota is another area prone to flash flooding, and this one killed 238 and cost $165 million, according to Rapid City Public Records. This one occurred at night, which was even more dangerous because people were sleeping and confused.

Hurricane Camille Flooding Of 1969

The Category 5 hurricane hit the Gulf in August of 1969, killing about 256 people. According to the National Weather Service, Camille moved through the Appalachian Mountains, leaving flash floods throughout the East. Three people in Cuba also died as a result, and the damages amounted to $1.421 billion, according to the National Hurricane Center.

Mississippi River Flood Of 1927

Generally considered the most destructive flood of American history, this natural disaster killed 500 people and left 600,000 homeless, according to PBS. It stretched across 15 million acres of land, spanning to Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

Hurricane Katrina Flooding Of 2005

Hurricane Katrina is the most expensive natural disaster in United States history, costing $81 billion. The weather killed more than 1,800 people and impacted 15 million. According to Al Jazeera America, 80 percent of New Orleans was underwater, and the community still feels the impact of the tragedy today.

Johnstown Flood Of 1889

A failed dam is a dangerous way to start a flood, and that's what happened in May of 1889 in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. South Fork Dam failed, releasing 20 million tons of water and killing more than 2,200, according to the Johnstown Flood Museum.

Galveston Flood of 1900

According to the Library of Congress, a whopping 8,000 people died on Sept. 8, 1900, when a hurricane hit Texas and left treacherous flooding behind. Before that flood, Galveston was a booming city, but the natural disaster was crippling.

8 April 1940 - History

April 2021 marks the official 20th anniversary of Sexual Assault Awareness Month — but did you know we can trace its history even longer?

Even before its official declaration, SAAM was about both awareness and prevention of sexual assault, harassment, and abuse. Looking at the history of the movement to end sexual violence, it’s clear why: It’s impossible to prevent an issue no one knows about, and it’s difficult to make people aware of a problem without providing a solution. The two work in tandem, and they always have. From the civil rights movement to the founding of the first rape crisis centers to national legislation and beyond, the roots of SAAM run deep.

Roots of the Movement

As long as there have been people who care about making the world a better place, there have been individuals advocating for sexual assault prevention. In the United States, movements for social change and equality began to gain traction in the 1940s and 50s with the civil rights era. Although open discussion of the realities of sexual assault and domestic violence were limited at these times, activists for equal rights began to challenge the status quo.

Efforts during this time were championed by Black women and women of color. Advocates like Rosa Parks worked at the intersections of race-based and gender-based violence (a framework that years later in 1989, advocate and professor Kimberlé Crenshaw would call “intersectionality”).

Wide social activism around the issue of sexual assault continued into the 1970s, bringing with it support for survivors and heightened awareness. The first rape crisis center was founded in San Francisco in 1971, the same city where the first U.S. Take Back the Night event was held seven years later.

The following decades mobilized survivors and advocates to call for legislation and funding that would support survivors, such as the Violence Against Women Act of 1993 (VAWA).

Monumental changes like VAWA demonstrated that national efforts promoting sexual violence prevention were needed. Even before SAAM was first nationally observed in 2001, advocates had been holding events, marches, and observances related to sexual violence during the month of April, sometimes during a week-long “Sexual Assault Awareness Week.”

In an effort to further coordinate awareness and prevention efforts, in 2000, the newly launched National Sexual Violence Resource Center and the Resource Sharing Project polled sexual violence coalitions. They asked organizations about their preferred color, symbol, and month for sexual assault awareness activities. The results showed that those in the movement preferred a teal ribbon as a symbol for sexual assault awareness, and SAAM as we know it was born.

NSVRC’s Role

For advocates at state coalitions, college campuses, or other community organizations, funding and time are often barriers to developing campaigns or resources related to awareness and prevention. That is why, each year, NSVRC coordinates a national SAAM campaign complete with the resources, graphics, and tools needed to hold an event or otherwise raise awareness.

Each year, NSVRC solicits feedback on SAAM, asking constituents about preferred topics to focus on. This feedback then informs the creation of the theme, which spans from the slogan to the design elements to the type of resources created. Once those resources and supplies are created, NSVRC shares them with a wide range of state, territory, and local organizations working to end sexual violence as well as individuals who want to make change in their communities.

Awareness & Prevention

In the early 2000s, the primary goal of SAAM was awareness — both raising visibility of the teal ribbon and the meaning behind it. By the mid-2000s, SAAM incorporated prevention more heavily, focusing on areas such as communities, workplaces, and college campuses. These campaigns discussed ways that individuals and communities can stop sexual assault before it happens by changing behaviors and promoting respect.

These two goals of awareness and prevention carried over into the 2010s, laying the groundwork for the SAAM that we see today. While each campaign has a different theme, they all share same common goals: to raise visibility about sexual assault and share how it can be prevented, whether that’s through education about healthy sexuality, consent, or bystander intervention.

Expanding Audiences

In more recent years, SAAM has focused on bringing in audiences beyond advocates — those who may not realize they play an important role in preventing sexual violence. Recent resources have focused on how people like parents, faith leaders, and coaches can become agents of change, while sharing the practical things each of us can do to prevent sexual assault.

SAAM has also branched out to Spanish-speaking audiences as well, with campaigns in recent years that include Spanish content. Whether that’s resources that cover the same information from the English campaign in Spanish, a different theme and style of resources, or a combination of the two, SAAM en español has helped even more communities get involved in prevention.

The Future of SAAM

The history of SAAM has shown us that, no matter what, those who want to end sexual assault and abuse will always find ways to advocate for awareness and prevention. Looking forward, we can be sure that SAAM will continue to grow and adapt, reaching even more audiences with the message that a world free of sexual assault and abuse is possible.

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