What are the capabilities of a warhorse?

What are the capabilities of a warhorse?

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I am really curious about the capabilities of warhorses that the military used before the combustion vehicle came and mostly replaced them on modern battlefield. I had read a bit about warhorse, but many of those article didn't really explain the horse's capabilities. To put it simply:

  • What is the most powerful warhorse breed in history?
  • What is the fastest warhorse / messenger horse in history?

As the other had pointed out, I more interested at time where heavy cavalry is the main battle tank of medieval warfare. Maybe 14-15th century? When Cavalry was a heavy factor for the army.

By "most powerful" and "fastest," I mean more specifically:

  • How far can they march in one day at war and at peace (if there is difference in marching speed)?
  • What is their usual (or maximum) 'operational range'?
  • For a charging warhorse, what is their maximum/heaviest rider carrying capacity?
  • Also, how long can they hold their full charging speed?

Talked with my favorite professional historian (who is also a professional equestrienne).

She pointed to the Tevis Cup as one source that might be instructive. Most of the Tevis competitors are Arabians, who have been bred to run fast and hard on minimal water & care. They shed heat well, but they can't carry the weight of someone in armor. (There is a reason you'll find few suits of Bedouin plate mail.) Depending on your interest, you may also want to search for the Mongol Derby (friend of a friend rode that last year) as an example of endurance riding.

They don't "march" - and their travel distance isn't limited by political conflict, as much as it is by fodder and terrain.

It is an error to assume that larger horses can carry more; larger horses are generally built for pulling. The Royal Armouries use a 15.2 hands Lithuanian heavy draught as their model for displaying 15 &16th century heavy horse armor because it fits well; that may be useful as a visual model. Note that the picture of the Ardennes horse does not even remotely look like a contemporary Ardennes horse. The breed shifted dramatically in the 19th century.

She concurs with the wikipedia article that during the middle ages they conceived of "breeds" rather differently, and tended to categorize the horse by use rather than by genetics. That article may answer many of your questions.

She also strongly objected to comparing a knight's horse with a messengers'; that is a little like comparing the Chevy 2500 she uses to haul her horse trailer with my ex-wife's old Fiat. Sure they both have 4 wheels, but if you hook the fiat up to the trailer, all you're going to get is laughter. The knight may charge into battle atop a destrier that is some form of draft horse, but he will ride a smaller horse to battle (a "rouncy"), and include a few pack horses in the train. The fuel consumption for the draft horse is going to be rather different than that for the rouncy.

The typical formula for the capacity of a riding horse is 20-30% of the horses weight, assuming the horse has been bred for riding, not pulling. (This is a general principle; horse people will argue with me on this.) Riding Horses are built to tolerate a load on their back; pulling horses are bred to apply force through a horse collar or yoke. They have different anatomical structures.

She also objected, as I did, to comparing horses across the range of human history excluding only the past 100 years. She said that comparing horses across all geography is probably even more absurd. Native Americans riding horses across what came to be Kansas have different challenges than trying to cross the alps, or ride into Russia in winter.

There is another reason why your question is difficult to answer; take for example your question about their top speed while charging. They lie. They didn't have speedometers, and contemporary estimates of speed are going to be in units that emphasize poetry over accuracy. There is no real reason to record a horses charging speed; if you're in front of the horse, it is too fast. It isn't running as fast as a race horse.

Generally H:SE prefers that you consult wikipedia and other common sources before you ask questions here, but I thought perhaps her comments and some sources might be useful to you. If you are interested, I can reach out to another contact who is a professional jouster.

A few sources:

  • The wikipedia article - she consulted that while I was writing this and said it is fairly good for the issues you want.
  • Horses in Shakespeare's time (Anthony Dent) - An ordinary traveler will rarely make more than 30 miles/day (and that is on roads, switching horses to avoid tiring the horse). I think that 30 miles/day is therefore an upper limit of operational range, depending on terrain, etc. Not a lot of warhorse in this book, but good reference material for some of your underlying questions.
  • Xenophon - if you want to know about the military use of the horse rather than about European Chivalry.
  • Your local SCA chapter or ren faire; they are generally happy to talk about their horses. (Have a friend call you after a half an hour, or prepare another escape plan).

I can answer only partially.

The most powerful horse breed I regard to be the Ardennes horse. This breed was able to carry a fully outfitted knight into battle.

The fastest war horse would be light cavalry as used in the Napoleonic and Krim wars. A charge's maximum speed was 20 km/h. It could be kept up only for a short period of time.

Cavalry travel speeds would have been much lower especially in unsafe conditions. Here probably steppe nomads like the Huns or Mongol armies would have been fastest.

For messenger speed a good candidate is the Pony Express with 1900 miles in about 10 days.


Ann Hyland wrote two books on The Warhorse with different subtitles re the time periods covered: the first ancient and medieval, the second Renaissance and modern. She also wrote Equus on horses and mules in the Roman realms.

First, wash out any images of knights on Shires and other big draft horses. Draft horses are for draft, are weak in the back for carrying, have gallumphing gaits, and only developed in the later 1700s, but mostly in the 1800s. Shires get their height from Thoroughbred blood. (Silver, Horses of the World)

Thoroughbreds were developed from the 1600s forward as cavalry remounts (Osmer, On Horses), and one of the qualities desired was speed. So they developed as racehorses. They are the fastest breed.

Now, you can erase all this modern stuff because medievals didn't know about it. While Svinhufnud did translate an Anglo-Saxon horse care text, we can see from that the medievals were still largely basing choices in riding horses on Xenophon, On Cavalry, c.350 BC. (You can get a translation at Project Gutenberg or the Perseus Project.) What makes a good horse for the job had not changed.

A good-sized warhorse was 15hh, and a hand is 4", measured to the withers, the pointy bit behind the neck. Hyland bases a lot of her sizing on horseshoe sizes, and surviving saddletrees. Smaller was common. The look of the horse was like a heavy hunter. Roman noses were the norm. Look at statuary. The Frisians of today preserve much of the look, and so were used in the movie Ladyhawke. A Frisian/Saddlebred cross is possibly closer, and a completely droolworthy beast.

Warhorses were called destriers/dextriarii because they went on a dexter lead (our left lead), according to S. A. Bolich. This put the support in the right place for crashing your lance into someone else. On the right lead, the horse is far more likely to fall back. So they took special training.

It's controversial whether they had haute ecole training (like the Lippizzaners in Vienna), if this would be any use in battle, but a horse fighting footsoldiers under saddle is reported as far back as the Graeco-Persian Wars. The Athenians had a special bounty out on Mardonios's warhorse because it was such a terror. You can also see haute ecole poses in the Elgin Marbles. Bolich says it could work, and it would seem to be required to take on a phalanx.

As to travel: depends on breed, condition, supplies, and roads. Not to mention climate, weather, and necessity. Some Mongol horses probably travelled from Mongolia to Europe. I would need my notes at home to quote weights of armour for the destrier.

2nd Cavalry Regiment (United States)

The 2nd Cavalry Regiment, also known as the 2nd Dragoons, [1] is an active Stryker infantry and cavalry regiment of the United States Army. The Second Cavalry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army Europe and Africa, with its garrison at the Rose Barracks in Vilseck, Germany. It can trace its lineage back to the early part of the 19th century.

In addition to its two current names, former names are 2nd Riflemen, 2nd Dragoons, 2nd Constabulary Regiment, 2nd Armored Cavalry, and 2nd Stryker Cavalry.

Historian to reveal the “real” war horses

Pack horses in the First World War. Horses coped with deep mud much better than trucks. From Horses in the British Army, 1750-1950 .

The British Modern Military History Society’s next zoom afternoon talk is on “The Real War Horse”, with guest speaker Lucy Betteridge-Dyson.

The Real War Horse explores the equine contribution to the Great War. It will look at the roles that donkeys, mules and horses played in the conflict and why, along with where they came from, their war experience and how they are remembered today.

Lucy Betteridge-Dyson is a military historian and MA student (History of Britain and the First World War) at the University of Wolverhampton. She has a particular interest in the First World War along with the South-East Asian theatre of the Second World War, notably the Third Arakan Campaign. In 2019 she founded Herstory Club which aims to connect women with a passion for history on both a social and professional level.

A battlefield guide and horse lover, her current research focuses on the use of equines in 20th-century warfare and the story of the real war horse in the First World War. An enthusiastic public speaker, she is passionate about engaging a wider audience with the history of the First and Second World Wars, having worked with the BBC, Commonwealth War Graves Commission and Royal British Legion.

The British Modern Military History Society hosts two talks each month, an afternoon session on the first Tuesday of the month, and an evening session every second Wednesday of the month.

» The Real War Horse talk is on July 6 at 2pm (GMT). Register here .


The Clydesdale takes its name from Clydesdale, the old name for Lanarkshire, noted for the River Clyde. [7] In the mid-18th century, Flemish stallions were imported to Scotland and bred to local mares, resulting in foals that were larger than the existing local stock. These included a black unnamed stallion imported from England by a John Paterson of Lochlyloch and an unnamed dark-brown stallion owned by the Duke of Hamilton. [8]

Another prominent stallion was a 165 cm (16.1 h) coach horse stallion of unknown lineage named Blaze. Written pedigrees were kept of these foals beginning in the early nineteenth century, and in 1806, a filly, later known as "Lampits mare" after the farm name of her owner, was born that traced her lineage to the black stallion. This mare is listed in the ancestry of almost every Clydesdale living today. One of her foals was Thompson's Black Horse (known as Glancer), which was to have a significant influence on the Clydesdale breed. [8]

The first recorded use of the name "Clydesdale" in reference to the breed was in 1826 at an exhibition in Glasgow. [9] Another theory of their origin, that of them descending from Flemish horses brought to Scotland as early as the 15th century, was also promulgated in the late 18th century. However, even the author of that theory admitted that the common story of their ancestry is more likely. [10]

A system of hiring stallions between districts existed in Scotland, with written records dating back to 1837. [7] This programme consisted of local agriculture improvement societies holding breed shows to choose the best stallion, whose owner was then awarded a monetary prize. The owner was then required, in return for additional monies, to take the stallion throughout a designated area, breeding to the local mares. [11] Through this system and by purchase, Clydesdale stallions were sent throughout Scotland and into northern England.

Through extensive crossbreeding with local mares, these stallions spread the Clydesdale type throughout the areas where they were placed, and by 1840, Scottish draught horses and the Clydesdale were one and the same. [9] In 1877, the Clydesdale Horse Society of Scotland was formed, followed in 1879 by the American Clydesdale Association (later renamed the Clydesdale Breeders of the USA), which served both U.S. and Canadian breed enthusiasts. The first American stud book was published in 1882. [7] In 1883, the short-lived Select Clydesdale Horse Society was founded to compete with the Clydesdale Horse Society. It was started by two breeders dedicated to improving the breed, who also were responsible in large part for the introduction of Shire blood into the Clydesdale. [12]

Large numbers of Clydesdales were exported from Scotland in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, with 1617 stallions leaving the country in 1911 alone. Between 1884 and 1945, export certificates were issued for 20,183 horses. These horses were exported to other countries in the British Empire, as well as North and South America, continental Europe, and Russia. [8]

The First World War had the conscription of thousands of horses for the war effort, and after the war, breed numbers declined as farms became increasingly mechanised. This decline continued between the wars. Following the Second World War, the number of Clydesdale breeding stallions in England dropped from more than 200 in 1946 to 80 in 1949. By 1975, the Rare Breeds Survival Trust considered them vulnerable to extinction, [13] meaning fewer than 900 breeding females remained in the UK. [14]

Many of the horses exported from Scotland in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries went to Australia and New Zealand. [13] In 1918, the Commonwealth Clydesdale Horse Society was formed as the association for the breed in Australia. [15] Between 1906 and 1936, Clydesdales were bred so extensively in Australia that other draught breeds were almost unknown. [16] By the late 1960s, it was noted that "Excellent Clydesdale horses are bred in Victoria and New Zealand but, at least in the former place, it is considered advisable to keep up the type by frequent importations from England." [17] Over 25,000 Clydesdales were registered in Australia between 1924 and 2008. [18] The popularity of the Clydesdale led to it being called "the breed that built Australia". [12]

In the 1990s numbers began to rise. By 2005, the Rare Breeds Survival Trust had moved the breed to "at risk" status, [13] meaning that there were fewer than 1500 breeding females in the UK. [14] By 2010 it had been moved back to "vulnerable". [19] In 2010 the Clydesdale was listed as "watch" by the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy, meaning that fewer than 2500 horses were registered annually in the USA, and there were fewer than 10,000 worldwide. [20] In 2010 the worldwide population was estimated to be 5000, [21] with around 4000 in the US and Canada, [13] 800 in the UK, [8] and the rest in other countries, including Russia, Japan, Germany, and South Africa. [12]

The conformation of the Clydesdale has changed greatly throughout its history. In the 1920s and 1930s, it was a compact horse smaller than the Shire, Percheron, and Belgian. Beginning in the 1940s, breeding animals were selected to produce taller horses that looked more impressive in parades and shows. Today, the Clydesdale stands 162 to 183 cm (16.0 to 18.0 h) high and weighs 820 to 910 kg (1800 to 2000 lb). [13] Some mature males are larger, standing taller than 183 cm and weighing up to 1000 kg (2200 lb). The breed has a straight or slightly convex facial profile, [22] broad forehead, and wide muzzle.

It is well-muscled and strong, with an arched neck, high withers, and a sloped shoulder. Breed associations pay close attention to the quality of the hooves and legs, as well as the general movement. Their gaits are active, with clearly lifted hooves and a general impression of power and quality. [13] Clydesdales are energetic, with a manner described by the Clydesdale Horse Society as a "gaiety of carriage and outlook". [8]

Clydesdales have been identified to be at risk for chronic progressive lymphedema, a disease with clinical signs that include progressive swelling, hyperkeratosis, and fibrosis of distal limbs that is similar to chronic lymphedema in humans. [23] Another health concern is a skin condition on the lower leg where feathering is heavy. Colloquially called "Clyde's itch", it is thought to be caused by a type of mange. Clydesdales are also known to develop sunburn on any pink (unpigmented) skin around their faces. [24]

Clydesdales are usually bay in colour, but a Sabino like pattern (currently an untestable KIT mutation), black, grey, and chestnut also occur. Most have white markings, including white on the face, feet, and legs, and occasional body spotting (generally on the lower belly). They also have extensive feathering on their lower legs. [13] Sabino like ticking, body spotting, and extensive white markings are thought to be the result of sabino genetics. Some Clydesdale breeders want white face and leg markings without the spotting on the body. [25]

To attempt getting the ideal set of markings, they often breed horses with only one white leg to horses with four white legs and sabino ticking on their bodies. On average, the result is a foal with the desired amount of white markings. [25] Clydesdales do not have the Sabino 1 (SB1) gene responsible for causing sabino expressions in many other breeds, and researchers theorise that several other genes are responsible for these patterns. [26]

Many buyers pay a premium for bay and black horses, especially those with four white legs and white facial markings. Specific colours are often preferred over other physical traits, and some buyers even choose horses with soundness problems if they have the desired colour and markings. Sabino like horses are not preferred by buyers, despite one draught-breed writer theorising that they are needed to keep the desired coat colours and texture. [27] Breed associations, however, state that no colour is bad, and that horses with roaning and body spots are increasingly accepted. [28]

The Clydesdale was originally used for agriculture, hauling coal in Lanarkshire, and heavy hauling in Glasgow. [7] Today, Clydesdales are still used for draught purposes, including agriculture, logging, and driving. They are also shown and ridden, as well as kept for pleasure. Clydesdales are known to be the popular breed choice with carriage services and parade horses because of their white, feathery feet. [13]

Along with carriage horses, Clydesdales are also used as show horses. They are shown in lead line and harness classes at county and state fairs, as well as national exhibitions. Some of the most famous members of the breed are the teams that make up the hitches of the Budweiser Clydesdales. These horses were first owned by the Budweiser Brewery at the end of Prohibition in the United States, and have since become an international symbol of both the breed and the brand. The Budweiser breeding programme, with its strict standards of colour and conformation, have influenced the look of the breed in the United States to the point that many people believe that Clydesdales are always bay with white markings. [13]

Some Clydesdales are used for riding and can be shown under saddle, as well as being driven. Due to their calm disposition, they have proven to be very easy to train and capable of making exceptional trial horses. Clydesdales and Shires are used by the British Household Cavalry as drum horses, leading parades on ceremonial and state occasions. The horses are eye-catching colours, including piebald, skewbald, and roan. To be used for this purpose, a drum horse must stand a minimum of 173 cm (17 h). They carry the Musical Ride Officer and two silver drums weighing 56 kilograms (123 lb) each. [29] [30]

In the late nineteenth century, Clydesdale blood was added to the Irish Draught breed in an attempt to improve and reinvigorate that declining breed. However, these efforts were not seen as successful, as Irish Draught breeders thought the Clydesdale blood made their horses coarser and prone to lower leg defaults. [31] The Clydesdale contributed to the development of the Gypsy Horse in Great Britain. [32] The Clydesdale, along with other draught breeds, was also used to create the Australian Draught Horse. [33] In the early twentieth century, they were often crossed with Dales Ponies, creating mid-sized draught horses useful for pulling commercial wagons and military artillery. [34]


The history of the 1st Cavalry Division began in 1921 after the army established a permanent cavalry division table of organization and equipment on 4 April 1921. It authorized a square division organization of 7,463 officers and men, organized as follows:

  • Headquarters Element (34 men)
  • Two Cavalry Brigades (2,803 men each)
  • Field Artillery Battalion (790 men)
  • Engineer Battalion (357 men)
  • Division Quartermaster Trains Command (276 men)
  • Special Troops Command (337 men)
  • Ambulance Company (63 men)

On 20 August 1921, the War Department Adjutant General constituted the 1st and 2nd Cavalry Divisions to meet partial mobilization requirements, and authorized the establishment of the 1st Cavalry Division under the new TO&E on 31 August 1921. Since 1st Cavalry Division was to assemble from existing units, it was able to go active in September 1921, even though the subordinate units did not arrive completely until as late as 1922.

1st Cavalry Division was assigned to the VIII Corps Area, with its division headquarters and 2d Brigade located at Fort Bliss, Texas, and the 1st Brigade at Camp Harry J. Jones in Douglas, Arizona. The headquarters facilities used by 1st Cavalry Division were those previously vacated by 8th United States Brigade when it was commanded by MG John J. Pershing in 1916, and the wartime 15th Cavalry Division, which had existed at Fort Bliss between 10 December 1917 and 12 May 1918.

The 1st Cavalry Division's assembled at Douglas, Arizona. The 1st, 7th, and 8th Cavalry Regiments had previously been assigned to the wartime 15th Cavalry Division until they were returned to the VIII Corps Area troop list on 12 May 1918. 1st Cavalry Regiment remained assigned until it was transferred to 1st Cavalry Division on 20 August 1921. The 7th, 8th, and 10th Cavalry Regiments were transferred on 13 September 1921, although the assignment of the 10th Cavalry Regiment to the 1st Cavalry Division was controversial because the transfer violated the Jim Crow laws. [ citation needed ] This controversy continued until 18 December 1922, when the 5th Cavalry Regiment, then on the VIII Corps Area Troop List, swapped places with the 10th Cavalry Regiment.

In 1923 the 1st Cavalry Division held division maneuvers for the first time, intending to hold them annually thereafter. However, financial constraints made that impossible. Only in 1927, through the generosity of a few ranchers who provided free land, was the division able to conduct such exercises again. In 1928 Major General Herbert B. Crosby, Chief of Cavalry, faced with personnel cuts, reorganized the cavalry regiments, which in turn reduced the size of the 1st Cavalry Division. Crosby's goal was to decrease overhead while maintaining or increasing firepower in the regiment. After the reorganization each cavalry regiment consisted of a headquarters and headquarters troop a machine gun troop a medical and chaplain element and two squadrons, each with a headquarters element and two line troops. The cavalry brigades' machine gun squadrons were inactivated, while the responsibility for training and employing machine guns fell to the regimental commanders, as in the infantry.

About the same time that Crosby cut the cavalry regiment, the army staff, seeking to increase the usefulness of the wartime cavalry division, published new tables of organization for an even larger unit. The new structure increased the size of the signal troop (177), expanded the medical unit to a squadron (233), and endorsing Crosby's movement of the machine gun units from the brigades to the regiments (2X176). A divisional aviation section, an armored car squadron (278), and tank company (155) were added, the field artillery battalion was expanded to a regiment (1,717), and divisional strength rose to 9,595.

With the arrival of the 1930s, serious work started on the testing and refining of new equipment and TO&Es for a mechanized and motorized army. To facilitate this, 1st Cavalry Division traded 1st Cavalry Regiment for 12th Cavalry Regiment on 3 January 1933. [ citation needed ]

Taking into account recommendations from the VIII Corps Area, the Army War College, and the Command and General Staff School, the board developed a new smaller triangular cavalry division, which the 1st Cavalry Division evaluated during maneuvers at Toyahvale, Texas, in 1938. Like the 1937 infantry division test, the maneuvers concentrated on the divisional cavalry regiments around which all other units were to be organized.

Following the test, a board of 1st Cavalry Division officers, headed by Brigadier General Kenyon A. Joyce, rejected the three-regiment division and recommended retention of the two-brigade (four-regiment) organization. The latter configuration allowed the division to deploy easily in two columns, which was accepted standard cavalry tactics. However, the board advocated reorganizing the cavalry regiment along triangular lines, which would give it a headquarters and headquarters troop, a machine gun squadron with special weapons and machine gun troops, and three rifle squadrons, each with one machine gun and three rifle troops. No significant change was made in the field artillery, but the test showed that the engineer element should remain a squadron to provide the divisional elements greater mobility on the battlefield and that the special troops idea should be extended to include the division headquarters, signal, and ordnance troops quartermaster, medical, engineer, reconnaissance, and observation squadrons and a chemical warfare detachment. One headquarters would assume responsibility for the administration and disciplinary control for these forces.

Although the study did not lead to a general reorganization of the cavalry division, the wartime cavalry regiment was restructured, effective 1 December 1938, to consist of a headquarters and headquarters troop, machine gun and special weapons troops, and three squadrons of three rifle troops each. The special troops remained as structured in 1928, and no observation squadron or chemical detachment found a place in the division. With the paper changes in the cavalry divisions and other minor adjustments, the strength of a wartime divisional rose to 10,680.

In order to prepare for war service, 1st Cavalry Division participated in the following maneuvers:

  • Toyahvale, TX Maneuvers – 7 October through 30 October 1939.
  • Cravens-Pitkin Louisiana Maneuvers – 13 August through 24 August 1940.
  • Second 3rd Army Louisiana Maneuvers – 10 August through 4 October 1941.
  • VIII Corps Louisiana Maneuvers near Mansfield, LA – 27 July 1942 – 21 September 1942.

History Edit

Composition Edit

The division was composed of the following units: [3]

  • 1st Cavalry Brigade
    • 5th Cavalry Regiment
    • 12th Cavalry Regiment
    • 7th Cavalry Regiment
    • 8th Cavalry Regiment
    • 61st Field Artillery Battalion
    • 82nd Field Artillery Battalion
    • 99th Field Artillery Battalion
    • 271st Field Artillery Battalion

    Training Edit

    With the attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, the "great laboratory" phase for developing and testing organizations, about which Marshall wrote in the summer of 1941, closed, but the War Department still had not developed ideal infantry, cavalry, armored, and motorized divisions. In 1942 it again revised the divisions based on experiences gained during the great GHQ maneuvers of the previous year. As in the past, the reorganizations ranged from minor adjustments to wholesale changes. [ citation needed ]

    1st Cavalry Division retained its square configuration after the 1941 maneuvers, but with modifications. The division lost its antitank troop, the brigades their weapons troops, and the regiments their machine gun and special weapons troops. These changes brought no decrease in divisional firepower, but placed most weapons within the cavalry troops. The number of .50-caliber machine guns was increased almost threefold. In the reconnaissance squadron, the motorcycle and armored car troops were eliminated, leaving the squadron with one support troop and three reconnaissance troops equipped with light tanks. These changes increased the division from 11,676 to 12,112 officers and enlisted men. [ citation needed ]

    The last of the 1st Cavalry Division's mounted units permanently retired their horses and converted to infantry formations on 28 February 1943. However, a mounted special ceremonial unit known as the Horse Platoon – later, the Horse Cavalry Detachment – was established within the division in January 1972. Its ongoing purpose is to represent the traditions and heritage of the American horse cavalry at military ceremonies and public events. [4]

    1st Cavalry Division reported for its port call at Camp Stoneman, CA as follows:

    Unit Staged Departed Arrived
    HHT, 1st Cavalry Division 21 June 1943 26 June 11 July
    HHT, 1st Cavalry Brigade 21 June 1943 3 July 24 July
    HHT, 2nd Cavalry Brigade 18 June 1943 26 June 11 July
    5th Cavalry Regiment 20 June 1943 2 July 24 July
    7th Cavalry Regiment 18 June 1943 26 June 11 July
    8th Cavalry Regiment 18 June 1943 26 June 11 July
    12th Cavalry Regiment 20 June 1943 3 July 24 July
    HHB, Division Artillery
    61st Field Artillery Battalion 3 July 1943 24 July
    82nd Field Artillery Battalion 4 June 1943 23 June
    99th Field Artillery Battalion 23 May 1943 23 June
    8th Engineer Squadron 23 May 1943 18 June
    1st Medical Squadron
    16th Quartermaster Squadron
    7th Cavalry Recon Squadron 26 June 1943 11 July
    1st Antitank Troop
    1st Signal Troop
    101st Unit Search and Rescue Team 10 May 1945

    Combat chronicle Edit

    Although being part of the lll Corps and participating in European battles such as D- Day, Aachen, Hürtgen Forest, Battle of the Bulge, and the Battle of Remagen, most of the 1st Cavalry Division arrived in Australia as shown above, continued its training at Strathpine, Queensland, until 26 July, then moved to New Guinea to stage for the Admiralties campaign 22–27 February 1944. The division experienced its first combat in the Admiralty Islands, units landing at Los Negros on 29 February 1944. Momote airstrip was secured against great odds. Attacks by Japanese were thrown back, and the enemy force surrounded by the end of March. Nearby islands were taken in April and May. The division next took part in the invasion of Leyte, 20 October 1944, captured Tacloban and the adjacent airstrip, advanced along the north coast, and secured Leyte Valley, elements landing on and securing Samar Island. Moving down Ormoc Valley (in Leyte) and across the Ormoc plain, the division reached the west coast of Leyte 1 January 1945.

    The division then invaded Luzon, landing in the Lingayen Gulf area 27 January 1945, and fought its way as a "flying column" to Manila by 3 February 1945. More than 3,000 civilian prisoners at the University of Santo Tomas, including more than 60 US Army nurses (some of the "Angels of Bataan and Corregidor") were liberated, [5] and the 1st Cavalry then advanced east of Manila by the middle of February before the city was cleared. On 20 February the division was assigned the mission of seizing and securing crossings over the Marikina River and securing the Tagaytay-Antipolo Line. After being relieved 12 March in the Antipolo area, elements pushed south into Batangas and provinces of Bicol Region together with recognized guerrillas. They mopped up remaining pockets of resistance in these areas in small unit actions. Resistance was officially declared at an end on 1 July 1945.

    Casualties Edit

    • Total battle casualties: 4,055 [6]
    • Killed in action: 734 [6]
    • Wounded in action: 3,311 [6]
    • Missing in action: 9 [6]
    • Prisoner of war: 1 [6]

    Postwar Edit

    The division left Luzon 25 August 1945 for occupation duty in Japan, arriving in Yokohama 2 September 1945 and entering Tokyo 8 September, the first United States division to enter the Japanese capital. 101 unit was set up in May 1945 to search for the missing soldiers in the Second World War. The detachment consisted of 17 people, three of them officers: Captain MacColeman, Lieutenant Foley and Sergeant Ryan. The operation was successful, although it lasted three years. Occupation duty in Japan followed for the next five years.

    In the summer of 1950, North Korea attacked South Korea, and the 1st Cavalry Division was rushed to Korea to help shore up the Pusan Perimeter. From 26 to 29 July 1950, the 7th Cavalry Regiment, one of the Division's three infantry regiments, killed at least 163 South Korean civilians in an incident now known as the No Gun Ri massacre, fearing North Korean infiltrators among with refugee groups. While the 7th Cavalry was directly responsible, Divisional commanders, including General Hobart R. Gay, had given them orders to do so.

    After the X Corps attack at Incheon, a breakout operation was launched at the Pusan Perimeter. The Division then joined the UN counteroffensive that recaptured most of South Korea by the end of September. The UN offensive was continued northwards, past Seoul, and across the 38th Parallel into North Korea on 1 October. The momentum of the attack was maintained, and the race to the North Korean capital, Pyongyang, ended on 19 October when elements of the Division and the Republic of Korea Army (ROK) 1st Infantry Division captured the city. The advance continued, but against unexpectedly stiffening resistance. The Chinese People's Volunteer Army (PVA) entered the war on the side of North Korea, making their first attacks in late October.

    On 28 October 1950, Eighth Army commander General Walton Walker relieved the 1st Cavalry Division of its security mission in Pyongyang. The division's new orders were to pass through the ROK 1st Division's lines at Unsan and attack toward the Yalu River. Leading the way on the twenty-ninth, the 8th Cavalry regiment departed Pyongyang and reached Yongsan-dong that evening. The 5th Cavalry Regiment arrived the next morning, with the mission to protect the 8th Cavalry regiment's rear. With the arrival of the 8th Cavalry Regiment at Unsan on the 31st, the ROK 1st Division redeployed to positions northeast, east, and southeast of Unsan the 8th Cavalry took up positions north, west, and south of the town. Meanwhile, the ROK 15th Regiment was desperately trying to hold its position east of the 8th Cavalry, across the Samt'an River.

    During the afternoon of 1 November, the PVA attack north of Unsan gained strength against the ROK 15th Regiment and gradually extended to the right flank of the 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry. At nightfall, the 1st Battalion controlled the northern approaches to the Samt'an River, except for portions of the ROK 15th Regiment's zone on the east side. The battalion's position on the left was weak there were not enough soldiers to extend the defensive line to the main ridge leading into Unsan. This left a gap between the 1st and 2nd Battalions. East of the Samt'an the ROK 15th Regiment was under heavy attack, and shortly after midnight it no longer existed as a combat force. At 19:30 on 1 November, the PVA 116th Division attacked the 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry, all along its line. At 21:00 PVA troops found the weak link in the ridgeline and began moving through it and down the ridge behind the 2nd Battalion, penetrating its right flank and encircling its left. Now both the 1st and 2nd Battalions were engaged by the enemy on several sides. Around midnight, the 8th Cavalry received orders to withdraw southward to Ipsok. At 01:30 on 2 November, no PVA activity was reported in the 3rd Battalion's sector south of Unsan. But as the 8th Cavalry withdrew, all three battalions became trapped by roadblocks made by the PVA 347th Regiment, 116th Division south of Unsan during the early morning hours. Members of the 1st Battalion who were able to escape reached the Ipsok area. A head count showed the battalion had lost about 15 officers and 250 enlisted men. Members of the 2nd Battalion, for the most part, scattered into the hills. Many of them reached the ROK lines near Ipsok. Others met up with the 3rd Battalion, the hardest hit. Around 03:00 the PVA launched a surprise attack on the battalion command post. Hand-to-hand fighting ensued for about half an hour before the PVA were driven from the area. The disorganized members of the 3rd Battalion formed a core of resistance around three tanks on the valley floor and held off the PVA until daylight. By that time, only six officers and 200 enlisted men were still able to function. More than 170 were wounded, and the number dead or missing were uncounted. Attempts by the 5th Cavalry to relieve the beleaguered battalion were unsuccessful, and the 3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry, soon ceased to exist as an organized force. [7]

    Following the battle, there were disparaging rumors about the 1st Cavalry Division's fighting abilities, including a folk song of the time called "The Bug-Out Ballad". [8] The series of engagements were rumored to have given rise to the song were due (at least partly) to the myth that the division lost its unit colors. [9] Other Army and Marine units disparagingly described the division shoulder insignia as representing 'The horse they never rode, the river they never crossed, and the yellow speaks for itself'. Another version goes: "The shield they never carried, the horse they never rode, the bridge they never crossed, the line they never held, and the yellow is the reason why." The aforementioned ballad only lasted until the Division which changed leadership proved itself in the months to come and during operation Crombez when the fifth relived Chipyong-ni. [10]


    Origins Edit

    On 14 October 1938, Curtiss test pilot Edward Elliott flew the prototype XP-40 on its first flight in Buffalo. [11] The XP-40 was the 10th production Curtiss P-36 Hawk, [12] with its Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp 14-cylinder air-cooled radial engine replaced at the direction of Chief Engineer Don R. Berlin by a liquid-cooled, supercharged Allison V-1710 V-12 engine. The first prototype placed the glycol coolant radiator in an underbelly position on the fighter, just aft of the wing's trailing edge. [13] USAAC Fighter Projects Officer Lieutenant Benjamin S. Kelsey flew this prototype some 300 miles in 57 minutes, approximately 315 miles per hour (507 km/h). Hiding his disappointment, he told reporters that future versions would likely go 100 miles per hour (160 km/h) faster. [14] Kelsey was interested in the Allison engine because it was sturdy and dependable, and it had a smooth, predictable power curve. The V-12 engine offered as much power as a radial engine but had a smaller frontal area and allowed a more streamlined cowl than an aircraft with a radial engine, promising a theoretical 5% increase in top speed. [15]

    Curtiss engineers worked to improve the XP-40's speed by moving the radiator forward in steps. Seeing little gain, Kelsey ordered the aircraft to be evaluated in a NACA wind tunnel to identify solutions for better aerodynamic qualities. From 28 March to 11 April 1939, the prototype was studied by NACA. [16] Based on the data obtained, Curtiss moved the glycol coolant radiator forward to the chin its new air scoop also accommodated the oil cooler air intake. Other improvements to the landing gear doors and the exhaust manifold combined to give performance that was satisfactory to the USAAC. [13] Without beneficial tail winds, Kelsey flew the XP-40 from Wright Field back to Curtiss's plant in Buffalo at an average speed of 354 mph (570 km/h). [N 2] Further tests in December 1939 proved the fighter could reach 366 mph (589 km/h). [18]

    An unusual production feature was a special truck rig to speed delivery at the main Curtiss plant in Buffalo, New York. The rig moved the newly built P-40s in two main components, the main wing and the fuselage, the eight miles from the plant to the airport where the two units were mated for flight and delivery. [19]

    Performance characteristics Edit

    The P-40 was conceived as a pursuit aircraft and was agile at low and medium altitudes but suffered from a lack of power at higher altitudes. At medium and high speeds it was one of the tightest-turning early monoplane designs of the war, [20] and it could out turn most opponents it faced in North Africa and the Russian Front. In the Pacific Theater it was out-turned at lower speeds by the lightweight fighters A6M Zero and Nakajima Ki-43 "Oscar" which lacked the P-40's structural strength for high-speed hard turns. The American Volunteer Group Commander Claire Chennault advised against prolonged dog-fighting with the Japanese fighters due to speed reduction favoring the Japanese. [21]

    Allison's V-1710 engines produced 1,040 hp (780 kW) at sea level and 14,000 ft (4,300 m). This was not powerful compared with contemporary fighters, and the early P-40 variants' top speeds were only average. The single-stage, single-speed supercharger meant that the P-40 was a poor high-altitude fighter. Later versions, with 1,200 hp (890 kW) Allisons or more powerful 1,400 hp Packard Merlin engines were more capable. Climb performance was fair to poor, depending on the subtype. [9] Dive acceleration was good and dive speed was excellent. [9] The highest-scoring P-40 ace, Clive Caldwell (RAAF), who claimed 22 of his 28½ kills in the type, said that the P-40 had "almost no vices", although "it was a little difficult to control in terminal velocity". [22] The P-40 had one of the fastest maximum dive speeds of any fighter of the early war period, and good high-speed handling.

    The P-40 tolerated harsh conditions and a variety of climates. Its semi-modular design was easy to maintain in the field. It lacked innovations such as boosted ailerons or automatic leading edge slats, but its strong structure included a five-spar wing, which enabled P-40s to pull high-G turns and survive some midair collisions. Intentional ramming attacks against enemy aircraft were occasionally recorded as victories by the Desert Air Force and Soviet Air Forces. [24] Caldwell said P-40s "would take a tremendous amount of punishment, violent aerobatics as well as enemy action". [25] Operational range was good by early war standards and was almost double that of the Supermarine Spitfire or Messerschmitt Bf 109, although inferior to the Mitsubishi A6M Zero, Nakajima Ki-43 and Lockheed P-38 Lightning.

    Caldwell found the P-40C Tomahawk's armament of two .50 in (12.7 mm) Browning AN/M2 "light-barrel" dorsal nose-mount synchronized machine guns and two .303 Browning machine guns in each wing to be inadequate. [25] This was improved with the P-40D (Kittyhawk I) which abandoned the synchronized gun mounts and instead had two .50 in (12.7 mm) guns in each wing, although Caldwell still preferred the earlier Tomahawk in other respects. The D had armor around the engine and the cockpit, which enabled it to withstand considerable damage. This allowed Allied pilots in Asia and the Pacific to attack Japanese fighters head on, rather than try to out-turn and out-climb their opponents. Late-model P-40s were well armored. Visibility was adequate, although hampered by a complex windscreen frame, and completely blocked to the rear in early models by a raised turtledeck. Poor ground visibility and relatively narrow landing gear track caused many losses on the ground. [9]

    Curtiss tested a follow-on design, the Curtiss XP-46, but it offered little improvement over newer P-40 models and was cancelled. [26]

    In April 1939, the U.S. Army Air Corps, having witnessed the new, sleek, high-speed, in-line-engined fighters of the European air forces, placed the largest fighter order it had ever made for 524 P-40s.

    French Air Force Edit

    An early order came from the French Armée de l'Air, which was already operating P-36s. The Armée de l'Air ordered 100 (later the order was increased to 230) as the Hawk 81A-1 but the French were defeated before the aircraft had left the factory and the aircraft were diverted to British and Commonwealth service (as the Tomahawk I), in some cases complete with metric flight instruments.

    In late 1942, as French forces in North Africa split from the Vichy government to side with the Allies, U.S. forces transferred P-40Fs from 33rd FG to GC II/5, a squadron that was historically associated with the Lafayette Escadrille. GC II/5 used its P-40Fs and Ls in combat in Tunisia and later for patrol duty off the Mediterranean coast until mid-1944, when they were replaced by Republic P-47D Thunderbolts.

    British Commonwealth Edit

    Deployment Edit

    In all, 18 Royal Air Force (RAF) squadrons, four Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF), three South African Air Force (SAAF) and two Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) squadrons serving with RAF formations, used P-40s. [27] [28] The first units to convert were Hawker Hurricane squadrons of the Desert Air Force (DAF), in early 1941. The first Tomahawks delivered came without armor, bulletproof windscreens or self-sealing fuel tanks, which were installed in subsequent shipments. Pilots used to British fighters sometimes found it difficult to adapt to the P-40's rear-folding landing gear, which was more prone to collapse than the lateral-folding landing gear of the Hawker Hurricane or Supermarine Spitfire. In contrast to the "three-point landing" commonly employed with British types, P-40 pilots were obliged to use a "wheels landing": a longer, low angle approach that touched down on the main wheels first.

    Testing showed the aircraft did not have the performance needed for use in Northwest Europe at high-altitude, due to the service ceiling limitation. Spitfires used in the theater operated at heights around 30,000 ft (9,100 m), while the P-40's Allison engine, with its single-stage, low altitude rated supercharger, worked best at 15,000 ft (4,600 m) or lower. When the Tomahawk was used by Allied units based in the UK from February 1941, this limitation relegated the Tomahawk to low-level reconnaissance with RAF Army Cooperation Command and only No. 403 Squadron RCAF was used in the fighter role for a mere 29 sorties, before being replaced by Spitfires. Air Ministry deemed the P-40 unsuitable for the theater. UK P-40 squadrons from mid-1942 re-equipped with aircraft such as Mustangs [ clarification needed ]

    The Tomahawk was superseded in North Africa by the more powerful Kittyhawk ("D"-mark onwards) types from early 1942, though some Tomahawks remained in service until 1943. Kittyhawks included many improvements and were the DAF's air superiority fighter for the critical first few months of 1942, until "tropicalised" Spitfires were available. In 2012, the virtually intact remains of a Kittyhawk were found it had run out of fuel in the Egyptian Sahara in June 1942. [29]

    DAF units received nearly 330 Packard V-1650 Merlin-powered P-40Fs, called Kittyhawk IIs, most of which went to the USAAF, and the majority of the 700 "lightweight" L models, also powered by the Packard Merlin, in which the armament was reduced to four .50 in (12.7 mm) Brownings (Kittyhawk IIA). The DAF also received some 21 of the later P-40K and the majority of the 600 P-40Ms built these were known as Kittyhawk IIIs. The "lightweight" P-40Ns (Kittyhawk IV) arrived from early 1943 and were used mostly as fighter-bombers. [N 4] From July 1942 until mid-1943, elements of the U.S. 57th Fighter Group (57th FG) were attached to DAF P-40 units. The British government also donated 23 P-40s to the Soviet Union.

    Combat performance Edit

    Tomahawks and Kittyhawks bore the brunt of Luftwaffe and Regia Aeronautica fighter attacks during the North African campaign. The P-40s were considered superior to the Hurricane, which they replaced as the primary fighter of the Desert Air Force. [9]

    The P-40 initially proved quite effective against Axis aircraft and contributed to a slight shift of momentum in the Allies' favor. The gradual replacement of Hurricanes by the Tomahawks and Kittyhawks led to the Luftwaffe accelerating retirement of the Bf 109E and introducing the newer Bf 109F these were to be flown by the veteran pilots of elite Luftwaffe units, such as Jagdgeschwader 27 (JG27), in North Africa. [32] The P-40 was generally considered roughly equal or slightly superior to the Bf 109 at low altitude but inferior at high altitude, particularly against the Bf 109F. [33] Most air combat in North Africa took place well below 16,000 ft (4,900 m), negating much of the Bf 109's superiority. The P-40 usually had an advantage over the Bf 109 in horizontal maneuvers (turning), dive speed and structural strength, was roughly equal in firepower but was slightly inferior in speed and outclassed in rate of climb and operational ceiling. [9] [32]

    The P-40 was generally superior to early Italian fighter types, such as the Fiat G.50 Freccia and the Macchi C.200. Its performance against the Macchi C.202 Folgore elicited varying opinions. Some observers consider the Macchi C.202 superior. [34] Caldwell, who scored victories against them in his P-40, felt that the Folgore was superior to the P-40 and the Bf 109 except that its armament of only two or four machine guns was inadequate. [35] Other observers considered the two equally matched or favored the Folgore in aerobatic performance, such as turning radius. Aviation historian Walter J. Boyne wrote that over Africa, the P-40 and the Folgore were "equivalent". [36] [37] [38] Against its lack of high-altitude performance, the P-40 was considered to be a stable gun platform, and its rugged construction meant that it was able to operate from rough front line airstrips with a good rate of serviceability. [39]

    The earliest victory claims by P-40 pilots include Vichy French aircraft, during the 1941 Syria-Lebanon campaign, against Dewoitine D.520s, a type often considered to be the best French fighter of the war. [4] The P-40 was deadly against Axis bombers in the theater, as well as against the Bf 110 twin-engine fighter. In June 1941, Caldwell, of No. 250 Squadron RAF in Egypt, flying as F/O Jack Hamlyn's wingman, recorded in his log book that he was involved in the first air combat victory for the P-40. This was a CANT Z.1007 bomber on 6 June. [4] The claim was not officially recognized, as the crash of the CANT was not witnessed. The first official victory occurred on 8 June, when Hamlyn and Flt Sgt Tom Paxton destroyed a CANT Z.1007 from 211 a Squadriglia of the Regia Aeronautica, over Alexandria. [5] Several days later, the Tomahawk was in action over Syria with No. 3 Squadron RAAF, which claimed 19 aerial victories over Vichy French aircraft during June and July 1941, for the loss of one P-40 (and one lost to ground fire). [40]

    Some DAF units initially failed to use the P-40's strengths or used outdated defensive tactics such as the Lufbery circle. The superior climb rate of the Bf 109 enabled fast, swooping attacks, neutralizing the advantages offered by conventional defensive tactics. Various new formations were tried by Tomahawk units from 1941 to 1942, including "fluid pairs" (similar to the German rotte) one or two "weavers" at the back of a squadron in formation and whole squadrons bobbing and weaving in loose formations. [41] Werner Schröer, who was credited with destroying 114 Allied aircraft in only 197 combat missions, referred to the latter formation as "bunches of grapes", because he found them so easy to pick off. [41] The leading German expert in North Africa, Hans-Joachim Marseille, claimed as many as 101 P-40s during his career. [42]

    From 26 May 1942, Kittyhawk units operated primarily as fighter-bomber units, giving rise to the nickname "Kittybomber". [43] As a result of this change in role and because DAF P-40 squadrons were frequently used in bomber escort and close air support missions, they suffered relatively high losses many Desert Air Force P-40 pilots were caught flying low and slow by marauding Bf 109s.

    Victory claims and losses for three Tomahawk/Kittyhawk
    squadrons of the Desert Air Force, June 1941 – May 1943.
    Unit 3 Sqn RAAF 112 Sqn RAF 450 Sqn RAAF*
    Claims with Tomahawks 41 36
    Claims with Kittyhawks 74.5 82.5 49
    Total P-40 claims 115.5 118.5 49
    P-40 losses (total) 34 38 28
    * Began conversion to P-40s in December 1941 operational in February 1942. [44]

    Caldwell believed that Operational Training Units did not properly prepare pilots for air combat in the P-40 and as a commander, stressed the importance of training novice pilots properly. [45]

    Competent pilots who took advantage of the P-40's strengths were effective against the best of the Luftwaffe and Regia Aeronautica. [9] [46] In August 1941, Caldwell was attacked by two Bf 109s, one of them piloted by German ace Werner Schröer. Although Caldwell was wounded three times and his Tomahawk was hit by more than 100 7.92 mm (0.312 in) bullets and five 20 mm cannon shells, Caldwell shot down Schröer's wingman and returned to base. Some sources also claim that in December 1941, Caldwell killed a prominent German Experte, Erbo von Kageneck (69 kills), while flying a P-40. [N 5] Caldwell's victories in North Africa included 10 Bf 109s and two Macchi C.202s. [48] Billy Drake of 112 Squadron was the leading British P-40 ace with 13 victories. [46] James "Stocky" Edwards (RCAF), who achieved 12 kills in the P-40 in North Africa, shot down German ace Otto Schulz (51 kills) while flying a Kittyhawk with No. 260 Squadron RAF. [46] Caldwell, Drake, Edwards and Nicky Barr were among at least a dozen pilots who achieved ace status twice over while flying the P-40. [46] [49] A total of 46 British Commonwealth pilots became aces in P-40s, including seven double aces. [46]

    Chinese Air Force Edit

    Flying Tigers (American Volunteer Group) Edit

    The Flying Tigers, known officially as the 1st American Volunteer Group (AVG), were a unit of the Chinese Air Force, recruited from U.S. Navy, Marines and Army aviators.

    Chennault received crated Model Bs which his airmen assembled in Burma at the end of 1941, adding self-sealing fuel tanks and a second pair of wing guns, such that the aircraft became a hybrid of B and C models. [51] These were not well-liked by their pilots: they lacked drop tanks for extra range, and there were no bomb racks on the wings. Chennault considered the liquid-cooled engine vulnerable in combat because a single bullet through the coolant system would cause the engine to overheat in minutes. The Tomahawks also had no radios, so the AVG improvised by installing a fragile radio transceiver, the RCA-7-H, which had been built for a Piper Cub. Because the plane had a single-stage low-altitude supercharger, [52] its effective ceiling was about 25,000 feet (7,600 m). The most critical problem was the lack of spare parts the only source was from damaged aircraft. The planes were viewed as cast-offs that no one else wanted, dangerous and difficult to fly. But the pilots did appreciate some of the planes' features. There were two heavy sheets of steel behind the pilot's head and back that offered solid protection, and overall the planes were ruggedly constructed. [53]

    Compared to opposing Japanese fighters, the P-40B's strengths were that it was sturdy, well armed, faster in a dive and possessed an excellent rate of roll. While the P-40s could not match the maneuverability of the Japanese Army air arm's Nakajima Ki-27s and Ki-43s, nor the much more famous Zero naval fighter in slow, turning dogfights, at higher speeds the P-40s were more than a match. AVG leader Claire Chennault trained his pilots to use the P-40's particular performance advantages. [54] The P-40 had a higher dive speed than any Japanese fighter aircraft of the early war years, for example, and could exploit so-called "boom-and-zoom" tactics. The AVG was highly successful, and its feats were widely publicized by an active cadre of international journalists to boost sagging public morale at home. According to its official records, in just 6 + 1 ⁄ 2 months, the Flying Tigers destroyed 297 enemy aircraft for the loss of just four of its own in air-to-air combat.

    In the spring of 1942, the AVG received a small number of Model E's. Each came equipped with a radio, six .50-caliber machine guns, and auxiliary bomb racks that could hold 35-lb fragmentation bombs. Chennault's armorer added bomb racks for 570-lb Russian bombs, which the Chinese had in abundance. These planes were used in the battle of the Salween River Gorge in late May 1942, which kept the Japanese from entering China from Burma and threatening Kunming. Spare parts, however, remained in short supply. "Scores of new planes. were now in India, and there they stayed—in case the Japanese decided to invade. the AVG was lucky to get a few tires and spark plugs with which to carry on its daily war." [55]

    4th Air Group Edit

    China received 27 P-40E models in early 1943. These were assigned to squadrons of the 4th Air Group. [56]

    United States Army Air Forces Edit

    A total of 15 USAAF pursuit/fighter groups (FG), along with other pursuit/fighter squadrons and a few tactical reconnaissance (TR) units, operated the P-40 during 1941–45. [49] [58] [59] As was also the case with the Bell P-39 Airacobra, many USAAF officers considered the P-40 exceptional but it was gradually replaced by the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt and the North American P-51 Mustang. The bulk of the fighter operations by the USAAF in 1942–43 were borne by the P-40 and the P-39. In the Pacific, these two fighters, along with the U.S. Navy Grumman F4F Wildcat, contributed more than any other U.S. types to breaking Japanese air power during this critical period.

    Pacific theaters Edit

    The P-40 was the main USAAF fighter aircraft in the South West Pacific and Pacific Ocean theaters during 1941–42. At Pearl Harbor [60] and in the Philippines, [61] USAAF P-40 squadrons suffered crippling losses on the ground and in the air to Japanese fighters such as the A6M Zero and Ki-43 Hayabusa respectively. During the attack on Pearl Harbor, most of the USAAF fighters were P-40Bs, most of which were destroyed. However, a few P-40s managed to get in the air and shoot down several Japanese aircraft, most notably by George Welch and Kenneth Taylor.

    In the Dutch East Indies campaign, the 17th Pursuit Squadron (Provisional), formed from USAAF pilots evacuated from the Philippines, claimed 49 Japanese aircraft destroyed, for the loss of 17 P-40s [59] [61] The seaplane tender USS Langley was sunk by Japanese airplanes while delivering P-40s to Tjilatjap, Java. [62] In the Solomon Islands and New Guinea Campaigns and the air defence of Australia, improved tactics and training allowed the USAAF to better use the strengths of the P-40. Due to aircraft fatigue, scarcity of spare parts and replacement problems, the US Fifth Air Force and Royal Australian Air Force created a joint P-40 management and replacement pool on 30 July 1942 and many P-40s went back and forth between the air forces. [63]

    The 49th Fighter Group was in action in the Pacific from the beginning of the war. Robert DeHaven scored 10 kills (of 14 overall) in the P-40 with the 49th FG. He compared the P-40 favorably with the P-38:

    "If you flew wisely, the P-40 was a very capable aircraft. [It] could outturn a P-38, a fact that some pilots didn't realize when they made the transition between the two aircraft. [. ] The real problem with it was lack of range. As we pushed the Japanese back, P-40 pilots were slowly left out of the war. So when I moved to P-38s, an excellent aircraft, I did not [believe] that the P-40 was an inferior fighter, but because I knew the P-38 would allow us to reach the enemy. I was a fighter pilot and that was what I was supposed to do." [64]

    The 8th, 15th, 18th, 24th, 49th, 343rd and 347th PGs/FGs, flew P-40s in the Pacific theaters between 1941 and 1945, with most units converting to P-38s from 1943 to 1944. In 1945, the 71st Reconnaissance Group employed them as armed forward air controllers during ground operations in the Philippines, until it received delivery of P-51s. [59] They claimed 655 aerial victories.

    Contrary to conventional wisdom, with sufficient altitude, the P-40 could turn with the A6M and other Japanese fighters, using a combination of a nose-down vertical turn with a bank turn, a technique known as a low yo-yo. Robert DeHaven describes how this tactic was used in the 49th Fighter group:

    [Y]ou could fight a Jap on even terms, but you had to make him fight your way. He could outturn you at slow speed. You could outturn him at high speed. When you got into a turning fight with him, you dropped your nose down so you kept your airspeed up, you could outturn him. At low speed he could outroll you because of those big ailerons . on the Zero. If your speed was up over 275, you could outroll [a Zero]. His big ailerons didn't have the strength to make high speed rolls. You could push things, too. Because . [i]f you decided to go home, you could go home. He couldn't because you could outrun him. [. ] That left you in control of the fight.

    China Burma India Theater Edit

    USAAF and Chinese P-40 pilots performed well in this theater against many Japanese types such as the Ki-43, Nakajima Ki-44 "Tojo" and the Zero. The P-40 remained in use in the China Burma India Theater (CBI) until 1944 and was reportedly preferred over the P-51 Mustang by some US pilots flying in China. The American Volunteer Group (Flying Tigers) was integrated into the USAAF as the 23rd Fighter Group in June 1942. The unit continued to fly newer model P-40s until the end of the war, achieving a high kill-to-loss ratio. [49] [65] In the Battle of the Salween River Gorge of May 1942 the AVG used the P-40E model equipped with wing racks that could carry six 35-pound fragmentation bombs and Chennault's armorer developed belly racks to carry Russian 570-pound bombs, which the Chinese had in large quantity. [66]

    Units arriving in the CBI after the AVG in the 10th and 14th Air Forces continued to perform well with the P-40, claiming 973 kills in the theater, or 64.8 percent of all enemy aircraft shot down. Aviation historian Carl Molesworth stated that ". the P-40 simply dominated the skies over Burma and China. They were able to establish air superiority over free China, northern Burma and the Assam valley of India in 1942, and they never relinquished it." [67] The 3rd, 5th, 51st and 80th FGs, along with the 10th TRS, operated the P-40 in the CBI. [N 7] CBI P-40 pilots used the aircraft very effectively as a fighter-bomber. The 80th Fighter Group in particular used its so-called B-40 (P-40s carrying 1,000-pound high-explosive bombs) to destroy bridges and kill bridge repair crews, sometimes demolishing their target with one bomb. [68] At least 40 U.S. pilots reached ace status while flying the P-40 in the CBI.

    Europe and Mediterranean theaters Edit

    On 14 August 1942, the first confirmed victory by a USAAF unit over a German aircraft in World War II was achieved by a P-40C pilot. 2nd Lt Joseph D. Shaffer, of the 33rd Fighter Squadron, intercepted a Focke-Wulf Fw 200C-3 maritime patrol aircraft that overflew his base at Reykjavík, Iceland. Shaffer damaged the Fw 200, which was finished off by a P-38F. Warhawks were used extensively in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO) by USAAF units, including the 33rd, 57th, 58th, 79th, 324th and 325th Fighter Groups. [58] While the P-40 suffered heavy losses in the MTO, many USAAF P-40 units achieved high kill-to-loss ratios against Axis aircraft the 324th FG scored better than a 2:1 ratio in the MTO. [69] In all, 23 U.S. pilots became aces in the MTO on the P-40, most of them during the first half of 1943. [58]

    P-40 pilots from the 57th FG were the first USAAF fliers to see action in the MTO, while attached to Desert Air Force Kittyhawk squadrons, from July 1942. The 57th was also the main unit involved in the "Palm Sunday Massacre", on 18 April 1943. Decoded Ultra signals revealed a plan for a large formation of Junkers Ju 52 transports to cross the Mediterranean, escorted by German and Italian fighters. Between 1630 and 1830 hours, all wings of the group were engaged in an intensive effort against the enemy air transports. Of the four Kittyhawk wings, three had left the patrol area before a convoy of a 100+ enemy transports were sighted by 57th FG, which tallied 74 aircraft destroyed. The group was last in the area, and intercepted the Ju 52s escorted by large numbers of Bf 109s, Bf 110s and Macchi C.202s. The group claimed 58 Ju 52s, 14 Bf 109s and two Bf 110s destroyed, with several probables and damaged. Between 20 and 40 of the Axis aircraft landed on the beaches around Cap Bon to avoid being shot down six Allied fighters were lost, five of them P-40s.

    On 22 April, in Operation Flax, a similar force of P-40s attacked a formation of 14 Messerschmitt Me 323 Gigant ("Giant") six-engine transports, covered by seven Bf 109s from II./JG 27. All the transports were shot down, for a loss of three P-40s. The 57th FG was equipped with the Curtiss fighter until early 1944, during which time they were credited with at least 140 air-to-air kills. [70] On 23 February 1943, during Operation Torch, the pilots of the 58th FG flew 75 P-40Ls off the aircraft carrier USS Ranger to the newly captured Vichy French airfield, Cazas, near Casablanca, in French Morocco. The aircraft supplied the 33rd FG and the pilots were reassigned. [71]

    The 325th FG (known as the "Checkertail Clan") flew P-40s in the MTO and was credited with at least 133 air-to-air kills from April–October 1943, of which 95 were Bf 109s and 26 were Macchi C.202s, for the loss of 17 P-40s in combat. [58] [72] The 325th FG historian Carol Cathcart wrote:

    on 30 July, 20 P-40s of the 317th [Fighter Squadron] . took off on a fighter sweep . over Sardinia. As they turned to fly south over the west part of the island, they were attacked near Sassari. The attacking force consisted of 25 to 30 Bf 109s and Macchi C.202s. In the brief, intense battle that occurred . [the 317th claimed] 21 enemy aircraft.

    Cathcart wrote that Lt. Robert Sederberg assisted a comrade being attacked by five Bf 109s, destroyed at least one German aircraft, and may have shot down as many as five. Sederberg was shot down and became a prisoner of war. [73]

    A famous African-American unit, the 99th FS, better known as the "Tuskegee Airmen" or "Redtails", flew P-40s in stateside training and for their initial eight months in the MTO. On 9 June 1943, they became the first African-American fighter pilots to engage enemy aircraft, over Pantelleria, Italy. A single Focke-Wulf Fw 190 was reported damaged by Lieutenant Willie Ashley Jr. On 2 July the squadron claimed its first verified kill a Fw 190 destroyed by Captain Charles Hall. The 99th continued to score with P-40s until February 1944, when they were assigned P-39s and P-51 Mustangs. [74] [75]

    The Narrative of the Trojan War

    According to classical sources, the war began after the abduction (or elopement) of Queen Helen of Sparta by the Trojan prince Paris. Helen’s jilted husband Menelaus convinced his brother Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, to lead an expedition to retrieve her. Agamemnon was joined by the Greek heroes Achilles, Odysseus, Nestor and Ajax, and accompanied by a fleet of more than a thousand ships from throughout the Hellenic world. They crossed the Aegean Sea to Asia Minor to lay siege to Troy and demand Helen’s return by Priam, the Trojan king.

    Did you know? Some traditions portray Homer as a blind poet, because the name Homer sounds like a word for "blind" in some Greek dialects. In the “Odyssey,” a blind bard appears telling stories of the war, which some interpret as a cameo by the poem&aposs author.

    The siege, punctuated by battles and skirmishes including the storied deaths of the Trojan prince Hector and the nearly-invincible Achilles, lasted more than 10 years until the morning the Greek armies retreated from their camp, leaving a large wooden horse outside the gates of Troy. After much debate (and unheeded warnings by Priam’s daughter Cassandra), the Trojans pulled the mysterious gift into the city. When night fell, the horse opened up and a group of Greek warriors, led by Odysseus, climbed out and sacked the Troy from within.

    noniuszegyesulet.hu youtube.com thehorse.com wallpapers13.com cowgirlmagazine.com animalfactsencyclopedia.com wikipedia.org petguide.com

    Got some questions? Or some suggestions? That’s why we’ve got a comments section on this blog! You can feel free to leave a comment or two down below and we’ll get back to you as soon as possible!

    War Horses: WWI primary resource

    This primary resource explores some of the stories surrounding the unsung heroes of the Great War horses. Discover more about how these animal heroes helped soldiers in WWI with this light-hearted comic strip. How many horses were sent to the front line? What challenges did Warrior the War Horse face?

    Pupils will learn about Warrior, the famous War Horse, and how he helped flush out the German army from Moreuil Wood in our National Geographic Kids’ History primary resource sheet.

    The teaching resource can be used in study group tasks looking at different elements of World War I. It can be used as a printed handout for each pupil to read themselves, or for display on the interactive whiteboard, as part of a whole class reading exercise.

    Activity: Ask the children to discuss, either as a class or in groups, why animals were used during World War I and the pros and cons they can think of associated with this. Pupils could use the resource as a starting point for their own research about other types of animals used during WWI (e.g. carrier pigeons, dogs, etc.), and create their own comic strip about these animals, including any specific case studies they can find. Pupils could use our First World War primary resource and First World War comic to help them.

    N.B. The following information for mapping the resource documents to the school curriculum is specifically tailored to the English National Curriculum and Scottish Curriculum for Excellence. We are currently working to bring specifically tailored curriculum resource links for our other territories including South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. If you have any queries about our upcoming curriculum resource links, please email: [email protected]

    This History primary resource assists with teaching the following History objectives from the National Curriculum:

    • Know and understand the history of these islands as a coherent, chronological narrative
    • Gain historical perspective by placing their growing knowledge into different contexts, understanding the connections between local, regional, national and international history between cultural, economic, military, political, religious and social history and between short- and long-term timescales.

    National Curriculum Key Stage 1 History objective:

    National Curriculum Key Stage 2 History objective:

    • Pupils should be taught a study of an aspect or theme in British history that extends pupils’ chronological knowledge beyond 1066

    This History primary resource assists with teaching the following Social Studies First level objective from the Scottish Curriculum for Excellence:

    • I can compare aspects of people’s daily lives in the past with my own by using historical evidence or the experience of recreating an historical setting.

    Scottish Curriculum for Excellence Third level Social Studies objective:

    • I can describe the factors contributing to a major social, political or economic change in the past and can assess the impact on people’s lives.

    Scottish Curriculum for Excellence Fourth level Social Studies objective:

    Warhorse Clarifies What's Up With The Patches For 'Kingdom Come: Deliverance'

    Here's what you need to know from the guys who know what they're doing.

    It would be an understatement to say that the patches for Kingdom Come: Deliverance have created more misunderstanding than enlightenment. It started when a confused uproar arose about a 23 GB day-one patch after physical copies of the game were sold early when the February 13 street date was broken. Many digital purchasers then became confused about which version they were playing when they didn’t get the download. More confusion was sown by different version numbers on different platforms. Warhorse Studios, the game’s developer, has clarified what’s up with the patches in a lengthy post on Reddit.

    Warhorse submits a patch to the platform holders, (e.g. Steam, Xbox and PlayStation) when it’s ready. The platform holder then tests it for stability and for whether it meets different platform-specific requirements. These tests take different amounts of time for the different platforms, and if anything is found wanting, the patch goes back to Warhorse and the process begins anew. This is why patches appear at different times on different platforms.

    The number for the patch version that appears when it’s downloaded is supplied by the platform holder. They each have their own coding schemes, and they may assign the same patch different numbers depending on factors such as region or language. This is why there has been confusion about which patch version is being played. The version number shown in the bottom left corner of the main menu is the correct number assigned by Warhorse.

    Here are the versions of the game released thus far, along with the next two upcoming patches according to Warhorse.

    The Gold master – Version 1.0. The version released on physical copies of Kingdom Come: Deliverance. This is the version that got the 23 GB patch.

    Day 1 Patch – Version 1.1. The version people got if they bought a digital download. This is also the version physical disk owners had after they installed the 23 GB patch. It’s the version I’m currently playing and enjoying on an Xbox One X. Here are the release notes.

    • Addition of multiple new events to the open world
    • Massive improvement in dialogue animations
    • Gaining money and experience is rebalanced
    • Weapon and armor stats are rebalanced
    • General combat improvements
    • Improved NPC reaction time
    • Sound propagation adjusted
    • Archery is now possible in stealth mode
    • Improved Persuasion UI
    • Plus numerous other bug fixes and improvements

    Week 1 patch – Version 1.2. Released on Steam on February 13 and PlayStation on February 15. Should “pass certification on Xbox very soon”.

    • Stealth and Stealth kills adjustment
    • People now get dirty more gradually
    • Additional quest bugs fixed
    • Various optimizations

    Hotfix – Version 1.2.5 (Upcoming). Sent to the platform holders for certification on February 19.

    • Fix for R2 button being non-responsive in combat
    • Fix for issues in quests with Hans Capon
    • Fix for quest Ginger in a Pickle

    Patch 1.3 – (Upcoming). The patch Warhorse is currently working. The features listed below may not make it into 1.3, but they are being worked on for eventual release.

    • Save and Exit functionality
    • Lockpicking minigame controls improvement on controllers
    • Pickpocket minigame improvement
    • Alchemy recipe for respec potion
    • Many quest related bug fixes

    There you have it, straight from the (War)horse’s mouth. Hopefully, this will dispel any lingering confusion about which version of the game you’re playing. Just make sure you read your version number from the menu screen.

    If you're interested in Kingdom Come: Deliverance, here are some other articles you might enjoy.

    Watch the video: Tom Hiddleston and Benedict Cumberbatch on the set of War Horse


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